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Stess and Emotions behavioural lecture.docx

5 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3410
Elena Choleris

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Stess and Emotions - Stress: coordinated serious of responses to an actual or potential aversive stimulus (physical, social, cognitive, immune) which typically includes alterations in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions with complex changes in behavior - Experience of stress is common to all organisms - Influenced by ones experience, genetics, behavior (individual difference) Stress: The response Stressors: Stimuli that cause stress - Chronic: constant, for a long time - Acute: once - Repeated: many times, with stress free gaps Stressors - Physical, social, cognitive - Environmental/Physical Changes - Negative: threatening - Positive: rewarding (sex has a stress response) - Controllable vs. Uncontrollable Hans Selye – 1950s - Classic view of stress - General Adaptation Syndrome - Adaptive functions to return body back to normal – homeostasis Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis - Hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN) o Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) - Anterior Pituitary o Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Adrenal Cortex o Glucocorticoids - When we have stress response our body becomes activated so this deals with it - NOTE = feedback loop o Cortisol itself feeds back to the brain and therefore inhibits the whole system There are two paths of stressor systems - One being the anterior pituitary system ^ (medial) - Two being the sympathetic nervous system (posterior) - NOTE: hypothalamus controls both Cytokines causes inflammation and fever ** There are images in slides online of both systems - Hippocampus had highest expression of cortisol in the brain  it responds to high levels of glucocorticoids and therefore inhibits the system - Amygdala also activates stress response ** Different images show different parts of the brain and their significance - Beta Endorphins = same gene that codes for ACTH Adrenal Medula : Catecholamines: 1) epiniephrine 2) norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex: Steroids : 1) Glucocorticoids (cortison, corticosterone in mice and rats – humans have a versioin of this ) 2) Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) Catacholamines slide** Fight or Flight Response - Norepinephrine (sympathetic nerves) = heart rate ^, blood pressure ^, Peripheral Vasoconstriction - Epinephrine (Adrenal Medulla) = Lipid breakdown ^, Coronary Dilation, bronchial Dilation, Glycogen  glucose, heart rate ^, blood pressure ^, Peripheral Vasoconstriction Animal models of stress - Physical: pain, restraint, high/low ambient temperature, aggressive attacks. (these cause animal stress) - Physiological: conditioned fear, conditioned defeat, subordination (psychosocial) Psychosomatic Disorders: The Case of Gastric Ulcers - Gastric Ulcer: lesions of the stomach lining and the duodenum (leaking of gastric enzymes into the stomach cavity which can cause a lot of damage internally) - More common in those who are stressed - Stress induces them in lab animals - Helicobacter pylori: bacterium that causes ulcers - 75% of healthy subjects have the bacterium (therefore when stress kicks in the ulcers can develop) o Stress makes the body vulnerable to H. pylori Psychoneuroimmunology - Study of the interaction of psychological factors, the nervous system, and the immune system Immune System - Innate immune system - Adaptive immune system Innate Immune System - First line of defense at entry points (mouth, nose…)  attacks anything that is foreign - Attacks generic molecules by various pathogens - Phagocytes = macrophages and microglia o Carry toll like receptors which trigger phagocytes (by engulfing of pathogens) o Release Cytokines  Cytokines trigger inflammatory response(swelling, redness, aches, fever)  Cytokines activate cell mediated immunity Adaptive Immunes System - Targets specific antigens on foreign cells -
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