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Dan Yarmey (17)

Unit 2.doc

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PSYC 3480
Dan Yarmey

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Thursday, September 27, 2012 Chapter 3: Personality in Sport and Exercise - Is the uniqueness of a person consistent across situations, or can a person be differ- ent in different contexts, like sport and school? - Can personality predict sport performance or exercise choice? - Is there a distinct sport or exercise personality? - Does personality interact with the environment to influence sport and/or exercise per- formance? How does personality interact with motivation? - What is personality? Some Common Myths about Personality in Sport and Exercise MYTH: A distinct elite athlete personality profile exists MYTH: People choose physical activities and remain in these activities based on their personality MYTH: Contact-sport athletes consistently score high on aggression measures Introduction - some descriptions of athletes personalities may be cheerful, dedicated, aggressive, confident - over the last 30 years, researchers have also been interested in the potential link be- tween personality and regular exercise - there are many disagreements among sport researchers and consultants about the im- portance of personality in sport - in the 1970s and 1980s, there was a heated debate termed the credulous-skeptical ar- gument about the ability to use personality to predict sport behaviour and success - trait factors investigated today include trait confidence, trait anxiety, identity, attentional style, mental toughness, hardiness, optimism, competitiveness, ego and mastery goal orientation, perfectionism, sensation seeking, conscientiousness, and extroversion What is Personality? Personality - the overall organization of psychological characteristics-thinking, feeling, and behaving-that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across time and situations - each person is thought to be unique Thursday, September 27, 2012 Disposition - broad, pervasive, encompassing ways of relating to particular types of people...or situations e.g. competitiveness, optimism, and motivational orientation Personality Traits - there are over 4000 adjectives that describe observable behaviours that could be con- sidered relatively permanent, to make sense of this scientists use statistical methods to look at clusters of behaviours that are correlated, these are called traits Traits - a relatively stable characteristic or quality that is a portion of one’s personality e.g. perfectionism includes being organized, compulsive, socially precise, controlled States - momentary feelings and thoughts that change depending on the situation and time - various trait models have been developed over time for example Cattel’s trait personal- ity model (16 personality factors/traits) and Digman’s five factor model - over time researchers have realized that there is little consistent evidence for an elite athlete personality profile - Digman suggests that all people can be described in terms of the prevalence of five global factors name the “Big Five”: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extro- version, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN) - research suggests that individuals higher in extroversion and conscientiousness are more likely to meet their intentions to exercise How Does Personality Develop? - brief overview of the 3 perspectives that capture approaches to studying the develop- ment in sport and exercise psychology Psychodynamics - key aspect of Freud’s work is that he argued there was a strong biological mechanism driving motivated behaviour - the psychodynamic approach suggests that all behaviour is interconnected and driven by unconscious forces - contained an underlying theme that thoughts and feelings motivate our behaviours, a premise that is widely held to this day - id - the instinctual and driving force of personality, the pleasure principle centre - ego - mediates the individuals relationship with the environment, the reality principle - superego - the voice of the conscience and morality, the should/should not principle Thursday, September 27, 2012 - psychological energy was constant thus had to be directed toward socially acceptable activities such as sport and physical education, this discharge of energy is called cathar- sis Humanistic Psychology - focuses more on personal responsibility, human growth, personal striving and individu- al dignity - each person’s beliefs, values and perceptions are emphasized in the present manner - self-actualization - in relation to competitive athletes trying to be the best you can be and reach their potential - Carl Rogers contributed greatly to the field of personality study, he believed that when there is a discrepancy between a person’s self-perceptions and what is being experi- enced, this person might deny what is actually happening - Maslow published a hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, at the top of the pyramid, refers to the constant striving to make the most of one’s special abilities Cognitive-Behavioural Approach - the learning perspective suggests that all behaviour is learned through experience, and it discards the notions of disposition, drives or instincts proposed by other personali- ty theories - B.F. Skinner argued that behaviour that is followed by a reward would increase in prob- ability of reoccurrence - Rotter determined 3 factors would influence behaviour: situational experiences, gener- alized expectancies and reinforcement value - he believed that people are motivated to seek out positive stimulation and to avoid negative interactions or stimulation - Albert Bandura believed that people’s behaviour is highly influenced by their Self-effi- cacy, the belief that one’s capabilities to achieve a goal or an outcome - Bandura emphasized the importance of social learning theory, which suggests that people are active agents in shaping their behaviours, influenced by their inner drives and environments - social learning theory involved observational learning (modeling) which occurs through observing, retaining, and at times replicating others’ behaviours - the strict learning behaviorists suggest that personality is the sum of all that you do, not of what you think or feel Thursday, September 27, 2012 Interactionist Approach: Dealing with the Person-Situation Debate - some psychologists argue that behaviour was driven by internal person forces, where- as others argue for the central role of the environment - the end result of the debate was to recognize that both personal and situational factors impact behaviour in a predictive fashion - interactionist perspective - it is the situational interplay between the person and the en- vironment that determines the specific behaviours of an individual - most current research of personality in sport emphasize the interactionist approach The Measurement of Personality Projective Tests - contain open-ended questions, which provide a subjective perspec- tive Objective Tests - highly standardized tests that do not require the tester to interpret the meaning of the participant’s responses Sport-Specific Measures - the majority of personality research in sport today uses measures that have been de- veloped specifically for sport - there are 3 representative measures: 1. The Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) - designed to measure the personality and motivation of athletes participating in compet- itive sports - first sport-specific psychological test to be developed - measures personality traits within a specific sport, such as ability to cope with emotion- al stress, dedication to the coach and sport, and traits predictive of athletic success e.g. emotional control, aggression, leadership, conscientiousness, tough-mindedness, trust, self-confidence, and guilt proneness 2. Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) - designed to capture competitive trait anxiety - a general disposition to respond to a va- riety of situations with feelings of concern or worry, along with having heightened physio- logical arousal - contains 10 statements to measure sport competitive trait anxiety 3. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) - not really a stable personality type test since it was designed to assess state affect in psychiatric populations Thursday, September 27, 2012 - assesses 6 discrete affective states: tension-anxiety (TEN), depression-dejection (DEP), anger-hostility (ANG), vigor (VIG), fatigue (FAT) and confusion-bewilderment (CON) - elite athletes with positive affect reported an Iceberg Profile, scoring low on tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion but high on vigor - a meta-analysis found that there was weak support for Morgan and Pollock’s findings of the iceberg profile - the meta-analysis also found that mood accounted for less than 1% of the athletes’ performances Ethical Considerations of Personality Measurement Ethical Principles - typically devised by a specific organization and used by members of that organization to shape professional judgment and behaviour - in regards to athletes, breaches in confidentiality and the potential financial cost of test- ing athletes are considerations Personality Research in Sport and Exercise - much of the research in the 1960s and 1970s was directed toward determining if sport- ing performance could be predicted by personality traits - research has indicated that there is little evidence that personality can predict perfor- mance, athletes from non-athletes or the type of sport people will select - personality is only a small part but that does not mean they don’t have a place - in the following section, there will be examples of sport and exercise research studies that have emphasized a personality approach Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Risk-Taking - narrowing the margin of safety, both physically and psychologically - elements of danger and harm in sports Sensation (stimulus) Seeking - the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal and finan- cial risks for the sake of such experiences - a motivational factor for athletes to not only participate in sport but also to engage in risk-taking behaviours - there is research that suggests that stimulus seekers have higher physiological activa- tion levels or chronic levels of high excitation, which are rewarded when they take risks in sport Thursday, September 27, 2012 - the perception of danger creates excitement in athletes - athletes also have a desire to conquer the situation - using the Big 5 they compared high-risk athletes to non-risk athletes and found that high-risk athletes scored highest in emotional stability, conscientiousness and energy and low-risk were highest in openness - caution against assuming that all people take risks across domains due to elevated sensation seeking needs, there may be other reasons Competitiveness Competitiveness - a desire to engage in and str
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