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PSYC 3480 (25)
Dan Yarmey (17)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3480
Professor
Dan Yarmey
Semester
Fall

Description
Wednesday October 17 2012Chapter 6 Stress and Coping in Sport and Exercisethe ability to manage stress is often thought to be critical to elite performance and adherence to as well as enjoyment of exerciseCanadians have played a prominent role in stress and coping research in recent yearsPeter Crocker in the 80s acted as a catalyst for coping research particularly in sportCommon Myths about Stress and Coping in Sport and ExerciseMYTH Elite sport is inherently stressfulMYTH Exercise always reduces stressMYTH Dropping out of sport or stopping exercise is an ineffective coping strategyIntroductionfirst we must find out what stress isThe Concept of StressCarpenter described how the concept of stress often has one of 2 meaningsfirst stress can represent what is often referred to as the Stress Response which consists of our physiological cognitive affective and behavioural reactions when we are faced with heavy demandssecond is to consider it as a process that links situational demands to an individuals reactions to the outcomes of that experiencedynamic relationship between environment and peoples thoughts and behaviours Stressan experience that is produced through a personsituation relationship that is perceived as taxing or exceeding the persons resourcesStressorsexternal events forces and situations that have the potential to be interpreted as stressfulCognitive Appraisalsomeones interpretation of the situation this is keyPrimary Appraisalan evaluation of what is at stake for the person in the situationSecondary Appraisalwhat can be done in the situation which will depend on an individuals available resources level of perceived control and expectations regarding what is likely to occur in the futurethe cognitive appraisal process can result in various kinds of stress including harmloss threat and challengeHarmLossan appraisal of a situation in which psychological damage has already been done and the loss is irrevocableThreatthe anticipation of harm that might occur or is likely to occurChallengestems from the interpretation of potential benefits from succeeding in a situation that presents difficult demandsnot all stress is negative and to be avoidedstress has the potential to be both beneficial and harmfulHans Selye distinguished between Eustress good stress and Distress bad stressstress can be useful for performance and wellbeing but at a certain point it becomes too high and results in various mental emotional and physiological limitationswe will experience stress only if the situation is meaningful or important to usStress and EmotionRichard Lazarus suggests that the concepts of stress and emotion are similar but we can learn more about what an individual is experiencing what a situation means to an individuals and how the individual is likely to respond by looking at the specific emotion that is experienced Lazarus identified 15 emotions including both positive and negative each is important because there is a core relational theme for each emotion that describes the nature of the relationship between a person and his or her environmenteg core relational theme of anxiety is that the person is facing an uncertain existential threat suggesting they are not sure what will happen or what can be doneremember though that situations do not necessarily lead to particular emotions it depends what is at stake for the individual and their perceived resources to copethe 15 emotions are anger anxiety fright guilt shame sadness envy jealousy happiness pride relief hope love gratitude and compassionSources of Stress in Sportresearchers have proposed the use of general dimensions or concernsDaniel Gould found that general sources of stress identify by athletes include1Psychological Concernscompetitive stress selfdoubt losing fear of injury and mental readiness to perform2Physical Concernsinjury body weight pain and physical inactivity3Social Concernsnegative relationships with others lack of attention coaching changes and others expectations4Environmental Concernsfinancial stress media demands
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