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Unit 9.doc

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3480
Dan Yarmey

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Chapter 13: Physical Activity Interventions Interventions - based on manipulating the specific factors that affect exercise behav- iour. All effective behaviour change is based on understanding the commonalities among people while appreciating differences that exist between them Common Myths about Physical Activity Interventions MYTH: It is easy to get people to become or stay physically active MYTH: Exercise interventions offer long-term effects MYTH: If you have a positive attitude toward physical activity, you will always exercise MYTH: Individuals with chronic illnesses do not want to exercise because they have oth- er things to worry about MYTH: An individual’s physical activity level is determined by his or her motivation. It is not dependent on other key factors such as public health policies, incentives, or environ- mental barriers Introduction - the objective of this chapter is to help you understand what interventions have been successful for increasing physical activity as well as to discuss how physical activity has been used to help individuals with special needs or chronic illness The Importance of Maintaining a Physically Active Lifestyle - benefits of exercise including reducing risk of diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, obesity and cardiovascular disease as well as improving mental health - in order for health benefits, individuals have to have effect, individuals have to exercise with a high degree of regularity - the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute documents that only 49% of all Canadians older than 20 are classified as at least moderately active (walking a total of half an hour per day) - this means 51% are inactive or sedentary, which is troublesome for 2 reasons: - (1) despite the abundant information documenting the benefits of an active lifestyle, Canadians continue to remain largely sedentary - (2) from a public health perspective, Canadians are living longer and this increased life expectancy will place an increased strain on our health-care system - physical inactivity is very costly to our health-care system - there have been initiatives to change for example ACTIVE2010 - initiatives don’t address the issue of why Canadians remain inactive and how we can get them to exercise with the frequency, intensity and duration necessary Determinant and Intervention Research Determinant Research - dedicated to evaluating determinants, which are factors that affect exercise behaviour, determinants are generally based on 4 factors: individual, psy- chological, social and program Individual Factors - reside within the person e.g. age Psychological Factors - what the individual thinks or the traits that he or she may pos- sess Social Factors - aspects within the social setting or human interaction Program Factors - based on the program context Intervention Research - does not directly alter exercise behaviour but, rather, seeks to manipulate the different factors that affect behaviour - there is an abundance of evidence-based exercise intervention research, but only a faction has been translated into practice settings Intervention Research Involving Physical Activity - research into the role of physical activity can be of 2 types: outcome research and treatment research Outcome Research - the focus is to develop an intervention and test whether or not it positively affects exercise behaviour Treatment Research - the intent is to modify an individual’s life experience in some way through the use of physical activity Physical Activity as an Outcome in Intervention Research Theory-based Research - evaluates relationships among constructs that are proposed by theories or models of behaviour change Non-theory-based Research - may contain the same constructs outlined by theories, but it is not concerned with testing theoretically proposed relationships Theory-based Physical Activity Intervention Research Theory of Planned Behaviour - the most immediate predictor of behaviour is an individual’s intention to complete the behaviour - an intention is determined by an individual’s attitude toward the behaviour and the sub- jective norm - perceived behavioural control is proposed to affect both the intentions to engage in the behaviour and the behaviour itself - intention and perceived behaviour control were found to be most strongly associated with exercise and attitude is most strongly associated with intention Persuasive Communication - one way to provoke attitude change and is based on providing specific information regarding beliefs about physical activity - a new area of research focuses on implementation intentions Implementation Intentions - those strong mental associations that form between a sit- uational cue and a specific behaviour (when I get in the car, I will drive to the gym) - the intention construct captured by the theory of planned behaviour specifies people’s general behavioural goals whereas implementation intentions specifies them more - (1) in order to change behaviour, it is necessary to change attitudes or beliefs sur- rounding the targeted behaviour, (2) persuasive communication is a successful tech- nique for influencing attitude change, (3) specific implementation intentions can in- crease the probability of completing the action Social Cognitive Theory - composed of a number of constructs and proposed relationships - self-efficacy is important, which describes an individual’s belief in his or her ability to produce desired outcomes - increased self-efficacy increases desirable behaviour - targeting and improving self-efficacy will be a large part of any successful intervention Barrier Self-Efficacy - confidence in one’s ability to overcome barriers that may arise when participating in exercise Scheduling Self-Efficacy - confidence in one’s ability to plan and organize exercise in one’s life Task Self-Efficacy - confidence in one’s ability to complete the exercise task Exercise Self-Efficacy - confidence in one’s ability to engage in physical activity - self-efficacy can be increased through goal settings, encouraging social support, pro- viding information or educational programs Transtheoretical Model - suggests that there are distinct stages that an individual passes through when attempt- ing to change behaviours: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance - interventions should be stage matched, individuals think and behave differently in each stage and are motivated by different processes Non-theory-based Intervention Research - 2 areas gave received a fair amount of attention: delivery approaches and behavioural approaches Delivery Approaches - based on how information is delivered to an individual Behavioural Approaches - teach individuals specific management skills necessary for successful maintenance of physical activity Interventions Based on Delivery Approached 1. Computer Technology Interventions - content on most physical activity websites usually involves educational information about exercise and techniques to help individuals manage their own activity - websites are dynamic and interactive, allowing for new information to be updated regu- larly and for users to log in and track their own unique behaviours, emotions and thoughts - advantage is they are cost-effective and highly interactive - main disadvantage is the lack of face time and accountability 2. Telephone Interventions - main advantage is that they are cost-effective and capable of reaching many people - designs involve a trained health educator providing counseling over the phone - sessions usually involve providing support, physical activity information and problem solving regarding exercise barriers 3. Mass Media Interventions - attempt to reach large numbers of individuals simultaneously through public forums e.g. video, television, radio and print - teach a potentially greater audience but it is difficult to show their effects on behaviour Interventions Based on Behavioural Approaches - 3 behavioural approaches to changing physical activity include goal setting, behaviour monitoring and signing a physical activity contract Goal Setting - involves identifying what an individual would like to work toward in terms of his or her physical activity participation - the SMART principles of specificity, measurability, adjustability, realism, and timeliness also apply when considering how to effectively optimize physical activity goals - a goal must be specific in terms of frequency, type, and duration of physical activity - goal must be realistic, not to hard and not too easy - a timeline must be set Behaviour Monitoring - keeping track of desired physical activity behaviour - can be achieved by keeping a physical activity diary, chart or calendar that records dai- ly or weekly physical activity and any details related to physical activity Physical Activity Contracts - thought to enhance an individual’s commitment and moti- vation to attain the physical activity goal - specifies in writing the physical activity behaviour to be achieved - an individual and another person then sign the contract - may include other details like rewards for fulfilling the contract Conclusions about Interventions Used to Increase Physical Activity - key components to remember when attempting to change individual’s exercise behav- iour are as follows: 1. Base the intervention on trying to change the individual’s attitude toward exercise. Use specific information that is based on his or her unique beliefs 2. Have individuals identify a specific implementation intention so that they attach activi- ty-related behaviour to a situational cue that is relevant in their life 3. Use creative ways to increase individuals’ perceptions of their ability to partake in physical activity and to overcome specific barriers unique to their situation 4. Be sensitive to the exercise stage that an individual is currently in. Use strategies that are helpful at each stage 5. When implementing an educational program, pay close attention to the way you deliv- er the information. Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of all delivery styles, as well as the relevance to the target population. 6. Use behavioural strategies that motivate the individual to be involved in his or her own exercise program e.g. goal setting or monitoring progress 7. Be sensitive to the age of the individual Physical Activity as a Treatment in Intervention Research - there are 3 areas where significant advances have been made by Canadians: cancer, spinal cord injury, and Parkinson’s disease Cancer - over half of the barriers to physical activity that individuals experienced during treat- ment were attributed to the disease and its treatment - outcome cancer factors affected by physical activity are quality of life, improved self- esteem, improved physical fitness, and improved body composition - a key predictor of exercise adherence during therapy was found to be the location of the exercise program Spinal Cord Injury - damage to the spinal cord that results in loss of motor, sensory, or autonomic function - those with SCI are considered to be the most physically inactive segment of all society - inactivity for them is associated with secondary health complications and severe re- duction in independence, social participation, and physiological well-being - exercise is an effective intervention for improving aerobic fitness, muscle strength, psy- chological well-being, and overall quality of life Parkinson’s Disease - PD is a movement disorder that is chronic and progressive, it occurs when brain cells malfunction and die - symptoms include tremors, rigidity and impaired balance and coordination - while still in its infancy, exercise interventions for individuals with PD are very promis- ing Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Chapter 14: Sport Psychology Interventions - athletes approach applied sport psychology consultants for 2 general reasons: (1) to seek help with specific problems, such as performance anxiety and lack of self-confi- dence, and (2) to work to improve the mental side of sport, such as imagery and atten- tion control Common Myths about Sport Psychology Interventions MYTH: Psychological skills training is a Band-Aid solution MYTH: Only elite athletes can benefit from psychological skills training MYTH: Athletes need a sport psychology consultant only when they are performing poorly Introduction - a psychological skills training program, or intervention, entails the structured and con- sistent practice of psychological skills and generally has 3 distinct phases: education, acquisition and practice - in the education phase, athletes recognize the importance of mental skills in sport and how the skills affect performance - the acquisition phase focuses on helping athletes acquire the various psychological skills and learn how to most effectively employ them - in the practice phase, the goals are to have the athletes automate the various psycho- logical skills through overlearning and to implement these skills in practice and competi- tion - the psychological skills that have been research most extensively and incorporated are: goal setting, imagery, self-talk, arousal regulation, and attention control Goal Setting - most commonly used performance enhancement strategy Types of Goals Goal - a target or objective that people strive to attain, there are 3 types: Performance Goals - focus on improving and attaining personal performance stan- dards Process Goals - focus on specific behaviours that an athlete must engage in through- out a performance Outcome Goals - focus on social comparison and competitive results Goal Setting - the practice of establishing desirable objective for one’s actions Effectiveness of Goal Setting - goals direct attention, mobilize effort, foster persistence, and promote the development of new learning strategies - goals may influence performance by enhancing self-confidence and sense of satisfac- tion - most athletes rate goals as being only moderately effective, most likely because they don’t know how to effectively set goals Assessing Goals Performance Profiling - a flexible assessment tool that allows for the identification of athletes’ performance-related strengths and weaknesses, often used as a first step in developing an intervention program, there are 5 steps: 1. Identify key performance characteristics of an elite athlete in your sport 2. Identify the ideal rating for each of your characteristics, on a scale from 1 to 10 3. Rate your current ability for each characteristic on a scale of 1 to 10 4. Find your discrepancy score by subtracting your current rating from your ideal rating 5. Prioritize your targets. After identifying your performance weaknesses, pick out the 2 or 3 that are most in need or correction Recommendations for Goal Setting - the acronym SMART has been recommended, goals should be specific, measurable, adjustable, realistic and timely - first, athletes should set goals for both practice and competition - it is important to write down the goals and make them public - goals should be stated positively rather than negatively - 4 types of goals should be considered: (1) individual athlete’s goals for self, (2) individ- ual athlete’s goal for the team, (3) the team’s overall goal, and (4) the team’s goal for in- dividual members - progress toward goal achievement should be reviewed on a regular basis Common Goal-Setting Problems - too many goals that cannot be properly monitored - athletes do not willingly participate in goal-setting program - underestimating the time it takes to implement a goal-setting program - failure to provide follow-up Imagery - some have hailed imagery as the “central pillar of applied sport psychology” - is considered one of the most important psychological skills to teach athletes The Nature of Imagery - athletes try to incorporate as many senses as possible, including sight, sound, smell, touch and kinesthetic sense Analytic Model of Imagery - most of recent imagery research has stemmed from Paivio’s analytic model, which suggests that imagery has cognitive and motivational functions that operate on either a specific or a general level Cognitive General Imagery - includes images of strategies, game plans, or routines Cognitive Specific Imagery - includes images of specific sport skills Motivational General Imagery - includes images relating to physiological arousal lev- els and emotions, for example, imaging feeling calm and relaxed in front of a crow Motivational Specific Imagery - includes images related to an individual’s goals - motivational general function can be divided into Motivational General-Arousal Function (imagery associated with arousal and stress) and Motivational General-Mas- tery Function (imagery associated with being mentally tough, in control and self-confi- dent) - based on the 5 functions, an applied model has been developed - athletes use imagery in 3 situations but mostly in competition or prior to competition - motivational general-mastery imagery is reported to be used the most - athletes use imagery for 4 reasons: cognition, motivation, healing and pain manage- ment - cognitive imagery can be beneficial when used for the learning and performance of play strategies - athletes use motivational-specific imagery to develop and attain goals - motivational general-arousal imagery can be used by athletes to regulate arousal and anxiety - images of emotions and arousal associated with competitive performance are related to increased levels of state anxiety whereas images of performing in a relaxed and calm state are related to decreased levels of state anxiety - motivational general-mastery is a significant predictor of self-confidence and self-effi- cacy Imagery Assessment Tools - The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised is an eight-item questionnaire that as- sesses an individual’s visual and kinesthetic imagery ability - participants are asked to physically perform 4 different movements, then visually or kinesthetically image the 4 movements and t
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