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Lecture

PSYC*3690 Article 1.pdf

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School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3690
Professor
Benjamin Gottlieb
Semester
Winter

Description
Article #: 1 Title: Drug Abuse Prevention: What Works Goals - propose a new framework for classifying prevention based on Gordonʼs operational classification of disease prevention - the IOM model divides the continuum of care in 3 parts: prevention, treatment and maintenance - prevention is divided into 3 parts: universal, selective and indicated which replace the confusing concepts of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention Who Benefits? (Target Audience) - drug users and people at risk for drug use Universal, Selective, or Indicated - methods of all 3 Universal - mission is to deter the onset of substance abuse by providing all individuals the information and skills necessary to prevent the problem - e.g. of universal preventative interventions = substance abuse education for all children within a school district, media and public awareness campaigns, school policy changes regarding drug-free zones - designed to reach the entire population without regard to individual risk factors - designed to delay or prevent substance abuse - participants are not recruited to participate - the degree of individual risk was not assessed Selective - targets specific subgroups that are believed to be at greater risk - e.g. special clubs and groups for children of alcoholics, rites of passage programs for at-risk males and skills training programs that target young children of substance- abusing parents - designed to delay or prevent substance abuse - recipients have specific risks and are recruited Indicated - identify individuals who are exhibiting early signs of substance abuse and other problem behaviours associated with substance abuse and to target them with special programs - e.g. substance abuse program for high school students, counseling groups, family- focused programs - individuals are specifically recruited - risk factors and problem behaviour are specifically addressed Primary, Secondary, Tertiary - none Risk and Protective Factors Risk 1. Individual and Interpersonal Risk Factors - low self-esteem, genetic susceptibility, sensation seeking, aggressiveness, conduct problems, shyness, rebelliousness, alienation, academic failure, low commitment to school 2. Peer Group Risk Factors - associating with individuals who use illegal drugs, rejection in elementary grades, friendship with other rejected children, peer pressure, bonding with peers who abuse alcohol and drugs and engage in delinquent activities 3. Family Risk Factors - alcoholic parents, perceived parent permissiveness toward drug/alcohol use, lack of or inconsistent parental discipline, negative communication patterns, conflict, low bonding, stress and dysfunction caused by death, divorce, incarceration of parents, or low income, lack of extended family or support systems, physical or sexual abuse 4. School Risk Factors - lack of support for positive school values and attitudes, school dysfunction, high rates of substance abuse and prosubstance abuse norms, drug using gang members, low teacher and student morale, lack of appreciation for school and educational process, academic failure 5. Community Risk Factors - high crime rate, high population density, physical deterioration, availability, lack of active community values, community condones substance abuse, lack of opportunities for youth involvement in positive activities Protective - personality/temperament characteristics of resilient children: optimism, empathy, insight, intellectual competence, self-esteem, direction/mission and determination and perseverance - life skills include: emotional management, interpersonal social skills, interpersonal reflective skills, academic and job skills, ability to restore self-esteem, planning skills, and life skills and problem-solving ability Measures of Data Collection (what is measured, # of times, and how) N/A Intervention Strategies? N/A Results (what did the program accomplish) N/A Limitations N/A Other Important Facts N/A ______________________________________________________________________ The Institute of Medicine Classification System - in a 1994 report on prevention research, the Institute of Medicine proposed a new framework for classifying prevention based on Gordonʼs operational classification of disease prevention - the IOM model divides the continuum of care in 3 parts: prevention, treatment and maintenance - prevention is divided into 3 parts: universal, selective and indicated which replace the confusing concepts of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention - prevention programs are organized along a targeted audience continuum (the degree to which any person is identified as an individual at risk for substance abuse - the at risk determination is based on risk and protective factors Risk Factor - an association between some characteristic or attribute of an individual, group, or environment and an increased probability of certain disorders or disease- related phenomena at some point in time Protective Factors - inoculate, or protect persons and can strengthen their determination to reject or avoid substance abuse - can inhibit self-destructive behaviours and situations that advance substance abuse - universal = entire population with programs aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol and drugs - selection = targets subsets of the population that are at risk e.g. dropouts - indicated = prevent the onset in individuals who do not meet the criteria for addition but are showing early danger sights e.g. consumption of alcohol and other gateway drugs - these interventions are designed to reduce the length of time that the early signs of substance abuse continue and to halt the severity and intensity of the progression of substance abuse - they are also intended to reduce the severity and intensity of the problem so individuals do not go on to require a clinical diagnosis Universal Preventive Intervention Strategies - mission is to deter the onset of substance abuse by providing all individuals the information and skills necessary to prevent the problem - risk and protective factors mainly reflect environmental influences e.g. community values, school support - protective factors = happy, academically successful, supportive family, high self- esteem, purpose in life - risk factors = failing in school, dysfunctional family, community with high rate of crime - e.g. of universal preventative interventions = substance abuse education for all children within a school district, media and public awareness campaigns, school policy changes regarding drug-free zones Key Features of Universal Prevention Programs - designed to reach the entire population without regard to individual risk factors - designed to delay or prevent substance abuse - participants are not recruited to participate - the degree of individual risk was not assessed - program has lower staff-to-audience member ratios, require less effort from audience - staff members can be professionals from other fields e.g. teachers - costs are spread over a large group and tend to be lower per person Selective Prevention Intervention Strategies - targets specific subgroups that are believed to be at greater risk - risk groups identified based on biological, psychological, social and environmental factors - targets entire subgroup regardless of risk of any individual - risk factors reflect both individual and subgroup characteristics (high sensation seekers, family substance abuse) and environmental influences (high rates of crime) - e.g. special clubs and groups for children of alcoholics, rites of passage
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