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University of Guelph
PSYC 3690
Benjamin Gottlieb

1 Lecture Notes Frameworks -Primary: reducing incidence; prevention/health promotion -Secondary: reducing prevalence; early intervention/acknowledge the problem shorten its duration -Tertiary: harm reduction; accepting the problem and trying to reduce the negative consequences -Universal: treatment for everyone (not based on risk) -Selective: targeting groups known to be at risk -Indicated: targeting people or families that have been diagnosed or individually screened for risks (individual basis) Epidemiology -Study of the distribution/location of determinants of health (resilience) and disease (risks) -3 Goals: 1. Identify risk and protective factors 2. Identify mediators of ^ 3. Develop preventions and Interventions -2 Studies: 1. Case Control: compare those who have the disorder to those who don’t retrospectively to identify risk factors 2. Cohort Design: compare those who have hypothesized risk factors to those who don’t progressively to see if those w/ risk factors have higher incidence (more powerful) -Relative Risk Ratio: incidence of risk pop./incidence on non-risk pop. Stigma -Often prevents people from seeking help -Sources: media, misconceptions, fear of unknown, low education, culture, embarrassment) Coping -Behavioural and cognitive efforts to manage environmental and/or internal demands and conflicts among them which are appraised as taxing or exceeding a person’s resources -Major classes of stressors that cause disequilibrium 1. Acute: Stressful Life Events/Transitions (time limited, distinct onset and offset) 2. Chronic Adversity: Enduring a. Continued Role Occupancy (too many demands) b. Inoccupancy of Desired Role (e.g. infertility) c. Disadvantaged Life Circumstance (e.g. poverty) d. Environmental or Social Trauma (e.g. natural disaster) 3. Micro Stressors/Daily Hassles (trivial but have cascading effect) -Whether or not these result in distress depends on subjective experiences -Distress is associated w/ a variety of adverse health consequences -Stress buffers: 1. Personal Resources (coping strategies, personality, self-esteem, resiliency, self-efficacy, etc.) 2. Social Resources -Cognitive Appraisals of Stressors 1. Primary Appraisal: evaluation of the stressor (can this effect my well-being a. Harm/Loss Appraisal 2 b. Threat Appraisal c. Challenge Appraisal (mixed feelings, acknowledge but see potential for change/growth) 2. Secondary Appraisal: evaluation of resources and ability to use them (can I handle this?) -Goals of Coping: 1. Reduce harmful conditions 2. Tolerate or adjust to negative realities 3. Maintain emotional equilibrium, 4. Continue satisfying relationships w/ others -Types of Coping (influenced by appraisals, personal and social resources, environmental conditions, habits, audience, etc.) 1. Anticipatory Coping: proactive, before exposure to stressors 2. Cognitive Coping: ways of thinking about the stressors and social comparisons, can be positive (reframing, upward social comparisons), or negative (denial, self-handicapping, etc.) a. Upward Social Comparison: comparing self to people who are “better” than you, self- improvement (increases motivation) b. Downward Social Comparison: comparing to self to those who are worse off, self- enhancement 3. Behavioural Coping: taking action to relive distress a. Approach Coping: engaging the stressor (taking action to resolve the problem or work through the emotions) b. Avoidance Coping: disengaging the stressor (denial, distraction, etc.) 4. Problem-Focused Coping: taking steps to reduce or minimize the stressor 5. Emotion-Focused Coping: focusing on emotional components, can be positive (accepting/reframing when the situation is uncontrollable) or negative (denial, distraction) -Coping and the outcomes of coping are completely separate from one another and need to be assessed separately -Desired Outcomes: 1. Psychological Functioning 2. Resumption of Usual Activities -Measures of Coping: -Self-Report -Problems: under/over inclusion, format doesn’t apply to many cognitive types of coping, social desirability, stressors are complex, no explanation of endorsed items -Should be domain specific based on individual stressors -Can’t do experimental studies -Coping-strategie
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