Class Notes (839,559)
Canada (511,394)
Psychology (3,977)
PSYC 3710 (18)
Lecture

Learning Disabilities October 17th 2013.docx

9 Pages
40 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3710
Professor
Frank Cameron

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Description
Learning Disabilities Lecture 8 October 10 2013 Traditional remediation  Predictive text and procedure are good at teaching children to use contextual and text bases clues (e.g. When I was walking to school today I tripped on a r_____)  Using word walls and repeated reading can increase exposure  Explicit teaching of predicting text is a good strategy (e.g. first I look at the pictures to make a guess)  Using predictable books (i.e. pattern books can help with this)  Remediation must happen at home as well as at school – and very early  Exposure and “flooding” are key elements to building literacy  The best approach is often a blanked approach- and most “formal” remediation programs focus to much in one key area  As students get older, finding approximate  (FINSIH GETTING NOTES) Sight words vs. phonetic decoding  most reading programs and television show focus on increasing phonemic awareness  although this is crucial it is one piece of the puzzle  using contextual and structural cues is a specifically taught skill  increasing sight word vocabulary is based exposure (when the student is ready-can they memorize and recognize chunks of letters) TV and Book Examples  although most TV has no education benefit to children, there are some well thought out examples such as word world, super why and less so sesame street  strategic book choices are also crucial- a balance between interest, understanding and phonetic exposure (e.g., rhyming) should be considering  although basal reading are good at gauging reading level-they are not usually interesting text writing disorders  often writing disorders are called DYSGRAPHIA  the DSM refers to this as a “disorder of written expression”  students would have writing ideation, spelling and grammar well below that of their peers  standardized measure are used to assess writing but these are not always perfect  examples of written assessment… Sample Rating  when assessed, writing samples are compared to “norms” but these don’t always fit exactly well so clinicians needs to use some discretion in rating  grammar, fluency (speed) and complexity can also be assessed  fluency is always a timed text- and grammar is not usually assess at the same time  parent teacher reports as well as grades and school samples are also key n diagnosing a disorder of written expression reading vs. writing  reading is generally seen as an “input” task whereas writing is seen as an “output” task  one task is a decoding task, whereas another task is encoding  while decoding we can use visual clues present but during encoding, there are no clues to help us  writing involves more “systems” than reading, and thus may be more prone to errors  decodingreading, encodingtyping it , writing Processing elements that affect writing  visual motor integration  reading fluency(decoding)  fine motor skills –when not typing  working memory-spelling, copying  executive function – planning, organizing thoughts  attention  visual memory – when copying or remembering sigh words  sequencing The hearing –reading-writing continuum Get from slides Writing is not just “output”  although writing is seen as an “output” it is more of a system of processes that work together, as an example 1. idea generation 2. development of writing plan –sentence and paragraph structure 3. actual writing or typing 4. editing 5. revising –note that the last two steps can actually do as much harm as good Building Blocks for writing  fine motor skills –writing with a tool is not just “holding” a pencil but applying appropriate pressure and grip  language decoding & encoding – student must know how to build and decode words  hand-eye coordination – in addition to fine motor skills, students must have good fine motor control to encode words- particularly for cursive  sustained attention –ordering of letters and sounds are important as is the words in relation to one another  organization of thought and planning – building sentences from words and words from phonemes requires executive function resources and planning The “Conventions” of writing  spelling  punctuation  grammar –word usage  all of these have inconsistent rules and are very complex to learn Remediation of writing  helping kids that are falling behind  assisting in writing requires an identification of what part of the “system” is dysfunctional –remember task analysis  the assistance given should ideally match the need Learning Disabilities October 17 2013 th Quiz 2 reviews: 1. Phonetic writing errors in young children are a. A good sign as they indicate phonemic awareness 2. The struggle the LD students have with academic tasks often are a. Executive function 3. being able to direct and plan ones thinking strategies for efficient learning is a. Metacognition 4. Early haring probes in children can often effect a. Speaking, writing, and reading 5. Jesse has difficulty distinguishing between the printed letters b and d his problem lies in a. Visual discrimination 6. Joan is brief shown a geometric figure on a card. Than the stimulus picture is removed. Joan cannot pick out the same geometric figure from a group of geometric pictures. Her problem is a. Visual memory 7. Difficulty in hear 8. Diagnosis for ASD typically happens a. As a toddler Why is Math Important? • Math and Language are considered the pillars of education, as they transfer to nearly all other subject areas and cognitive functions The 5 strands of math in Ontario are: • Basic Numeration – money & time calculations, predicting, estimating, money management, daily living • Patterning – developing effective use of time (identifying errors in work or spreadsheets), patterning is multiplication, architecture and art, algebra to Make quick calculations • Measurement – speed, time, height, weight, mass, volume – baking, Driving, design (measuring angles) • Geometry – identifying shapes early helps with language development (Through classification), building a deck – home repairs (structural Support), • Data management & probability – statistics, predicting outcomes, reading Data from graphs, tables and charts accurately, A word about math anxiety... •For some reason, our society does not put the same social pressure on math as it does reading and writing •Thus...it is “OK” for people to say, “I suck at math”, but not OK to say, “I suck at writing” •This does help students with a math LD though – as the stigma is less, and there is comfort in others being “afraid” of math •Fear comes from bad teaching– not the content •Math instruction has Math and LD. • Surprisingly, there is very little research on math problems and LD – though many students with a LD do indeed have difficulty with math • The bias is largely to do with the “language bias” in the identification process • Standardized reading scores are a necessary component to identification, but standardized math scores are not • Math difficulty is often seen as a “side effect” of language difficulty – but it can be very different • Non-Verbal Learning Disability is a recent example of how language and math can both be autonomous in a LD situation Types of “Math” covered in an assessment 1) Computation – Not timed, levels of
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit