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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

ARTICLE SUMMARIES Unit #1 The growing (but still limited) importance of evidence in education policy and practice.  Examines efforts in education to address the research—practice gap through an emerging field termed knowledge mobilization (KM).  All signs suggest that research will play an increasingly important role in education  Policy choices will continue to be driven in large part by factors other than research  Practices will continue to be based to large extent on history, tradition and convenience  Development suggests 3 important areas of action: 1. Strengthen research efforts related to KM in line with the suggestions stated previously. More research is needed but it also has to be better organized and coordinated. Better research tools are required and research should pay attention to the take-up of ideas and practices 2. Research producing organizations (universities) should do more KM work. Institutional capacity to support the effective sharing of research would benefit schools as well as the educational system more broadly and would also provide more fertile ground for the research efforts already mentioned 3. Organizations that actually deliver education require more capacity to find, share, understand and use research. Until schools and school systems have more capacity in these areas, even the best research will have little impact. The obviousness of social and educational research results  The obviousness question can influence the motivation of any person who is thinking about doing social or educational research.  Obviousness also related to the justification of social science departments and schools of education in expecting or requiring their faculties or graduate students to do social and educational research. It also concerns government funding policies.  Foundations, school boards, stage legislatures and congressional committees need to be convinced before they put up money, that social and educational research will produce something that any intelligent adult might not already know.  The feeling that research results are obvious is untrustworthy. People tend to regard as obvious almost any reasonable statement made about human behaviour.  The obvious reaction may be hypothesized to occur only when the judge‘s background knowledge in relation to the judged research result is weak.  Research obviousness needs to be aimed at maximal external validity, or the degree to which the obviousness research is relevant to real life. Unit #2 Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: language and Cognition, 12(1), 3-11. - Growing evidence that experiences have significant effect on behavioural, neuropsychological and structural aspects of cognitive performance - Ex. Video game players have been shown to have enhanced visual selective attention, skills that can be increased by extensive video game training and architects have demonstrated higher levels of visual spatial ability than non-architects - Experience has powerful effect on cognitive performance and brain organization and structure - For fluent bilinguals who use both languages regularly, both languages are active and available when one of them is being used - Bilinguals generally control smaller vocabulary in each language than monolinguals - Developmental research has shown that bilingual children control smaller vocabulary in each language than monolingual peers - Combined standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Half of children were bilingual - Difference found for children in each age group, and there was no interaction of age and language group - Vocabulary gap was constant throughout sample - Bilingual children were raised in English Speaking community, attended school and extracurricular events in English but spoke non English language at home - Average vocabulary size of bilingual children was smaller than monolingual classmates - Bilinguals have been shown to be slower in picture naming, encounter more top of tongue experiences, demonstrate poorer word identification through noise and experience more interference in lexical decision - Reason bilinguals experience deficits in lexical access is not clear - One view, explanation is attributed to fact that bilinguals use each of their languages less often than monolinguals creating weaker links - Early studies showed that bilingual children performed better than monolingual children on metalinguistic tasks that required controlled attention and inhibition, but not on comparable tasks that were more based on knowledge of grammar - Bilingual children develop ability to solve problems that contain conflicting or misleading cues at earlier age than monolinguals - Clear that bilingualism is an experience that has significant consequence for cognitive performance - Nature and direction of consequence, is less clear - Studies investigating language proficiency and lexical retrieval show deficits for bilinguals in both extent of representational base and efficiency with which specific lexical items can be retrieve - Executive control abilities show bilingual advantages throughout lifespan, these processes developing earlier in children, maintain more efficient performance in adulthood and declining less severely with aging - Studies investigating memory abilities are more equivocal - For tasks based on verbal recall, there tends to be disadvantages for bilinguals but involvement of nonverbal material or more controlled processing requirements either equalizes performance or gives advantage to bilinguals - Bilinguals are resolving verbal conflict with activation in two areas that monolinguals use to resolve nonverbal conflict, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus and Broca‘s area - Fast reaction time for monolinguals was related to activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and fast reaction time for bilinguals was activation of Broca‘s area - Bilingualism is one of the experiences capable of influencing cognitive function and to some extent cognitive structure - Bilingualism affects linguistic and cognitive performance across the lifespan. - The effect on linguistic performance is generally seen as a deficit in which bilingual children control a smaller - Vocabulary than their monolingual peers and bilingual adults perform more poorly on rapid lexical retrieval tasks. - Effect on cognitive performance is to enhance executive functioning and to protect against the decline of executive control in aging - These effects interact to produce a complex pattern regarding the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. - Memory tasks based primarily on verbal recall are performed more poorly by bilinguals but memory tasks based primarily on executive control are performed better by bilinguals Unit 3 Bullying Interventions: A Binocular Perspective Concerns for children involved in bullying and/or victimization  Associated Physical, social and mental health problems  Children who bully o Psychosocial difficulties o 5x more likely alcohol use o 7x more likely drug use o higher risk of delinquency and criminal behavior o depression  children who are bullied o stress related symptoms  head aches, stomach aches, difficulty sleeping, bed wetting, depression,  risk of disliking and avoiding school The New perspective  Understand bullying as a relationship problem  the goal of interventions with children who bully, are victimized, or are bystanders to bullying is to enhance their relationship capacity to promote healthy relationships in the present and to lay the foundation for healthy relationships throughout the lifespan. Developmental-systemic theory: This holistic theory requires that we use binocular vision to view two central processes in bullying problems. This perspective is similar to the socio-ecological framework that guides attention to social interactions and the broader cultural context of relationships. Provide not only supports for individual children‘s relationship capacity, but also to mobilize and transform the central systems in children‘s lives so that they promote healthy relationships. 1. Focus on the bully and victim  highlights behaviours, motivations and challenges  insight into specific risk and protective processes in individual‘s childrens lives 2. Focus on interactions with the salient systems or contexts in which children are developing (systemic lens)  consider how interactions within the family, peer group, school, and neighbourhood might be contributing to healthy or troubled interaction patterns Bullying Interventions: A Binocular Perspective  Two organizing principles for interventions: Scaffolding and Social Architecture 1. Scaffolding:  focuses on providing tailored and dynamic supports for the needs of individual children who bully or who are victimized.  the process of anticipation and directed instruction to provide dynamic supports for learning so that children can perform above their normal levels  As children become increasingly skilled, the scaffolds can be gradually dismantled, only to be set up again to support the next developmental stretch.  the scaffolding metaphor directs us to consider the supports required to provide children with the skills, capacities, and social cognitions to move out of the roles that are deleterious for development and into healthy relationship  programmatic: social skills training o parents of a child being victimized rehearse strategies to join friends and avoid peers who bully at lunchtime. Similarly, parents of children who become swept up in bullying others might coach them to stop and think: How would I feel if this happened to me? o the challenge for practitioners is that the scaffolding provided for children through individual therapy or programs within a clinical setting is limited in time and scope and needs to be supported through extensions to the multitude of children‘s moment-to- moment interactions with parents, teachers, and peers 2. Social architecture:  requires that adults focus on the social dynamics of children‘s groups and create social contexts that promote positive peer interactions and dissipate contexts that foster negative interactions.  the opportunity to structure children‘s peer groups to promote positive peer experiences and to deconstruct negative peer experiences.  Separate child who is bullying from victimized child and from the peers who are reinforcing the behavior by their attention and joining  While separated these children require scaffolding rather then exclusionary discipline  Embed victimized children within a positive peer context. Ie don‘t allow children to choose own groups for projects victim might be more marginalized and humiliated  promote a generally positive, respectful, accepting, and supportive climate within a social group Interventions for bullying require a combination of scaffolding and social architecture to provide comprehensive supports and to change the social dynamics that enable bullying.  Restorative justice practices are an example of the combination of these two strategies Unit 3 Responding to Bulllying: What works? Bullying is defined as repeated aggression in which there is a power differen.ial When bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power compared to the child or group of children doing the bullying Purpose: To examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the effectiveness of various strategies in reducing their bullying problems. ➡ (1) What factors influence youths‘ decision to do something about a bullying problem? ➡ (2) What strategies do youth use to stop bullying? ➡ (3) What strategies do youth perceive to be effective in stopping b
ling? ➡ (4) Is the effectiveness of strategies related to the length of tim
 ing has been ongoing? Results;  Children who are victimized by their peers can experience a wide range of problems, particularly if the victimization is prolonged.  Motivated to do something when/because o own need to exert control and be assertive (‗I just had to do something by myself to stop it‘) and by their emotional reactions to bullying (‗It made me so mad‘). o it started to escalate or when it became a constant presence in their lives.  Strategies that they use to stop bullying, o significant group did nothing. o More likely to do nothing when they were victimized by a friend compared to a non-friend. o girls were more likely to use relational strategies (i.e. telling a friend, telling an adult) compared to boys who were more likely to use confrontational strategies such as physical aggression or revenge. o with increasing age, used avoidance strategies o longer the bullying had been ongoing, the less effective students perceived their strategies. o Girls perceive relational strategies effective o Boys perceive confrontational strategies effective – actually make bullying more severe and ongoing  highlight the importance of adults supporting students  Unless adults support children and youth, students are likely to do nothing and gain a sense of helplessness about their bullying experiences over time.  important to provide children and youth with strategies that are effective, boys in particular, as they are most likely to implement strategies that are only going to increase the victimization over time Unit 4: Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: the promise and potential problems . Explanations for the growth of identification of LD (1) recognition of the significant academic and social problems realized by individuals with LD (2) greater social acceptance of LD over other categories of special education (3) increasing needs for literacy at home and work. Accurate determination of which students qualify for special education is critical as costs of LD education is nearly 2x. Use of IQ tests is a necessary procedure for identifying students with LD (IQ-achievement discrepancy) A Response-to-Instruction Model of LD: National Research Council proposed that the validity of a special education classification be judged according to three criteria. When all three criteria are met, a special education classification is deemed valid (Heller, Holtzman, & Messick, 1982). 1. whether the quality of the general education program is such that adequate learning might be expected. 2. whether the special education program is of sufficient value to improve student outcomes and thereby justify the classification. 3. Whether the assessment process used for identification is accurate and meaningful. 4. In 1995, L. S. Fuchs operationalized the Heller et al. (1982) framework 1995, L. S. Fuchs operationalized the Heller et al. (1982) framework with the following assessment phases. Relied on curriculum based measurement. Phase 1: rate of growth for all students in the class is tracked. Determine whether the overall rate of responsiveness for the class indicates that the instructional environment is sufficiently nurturing to expect student progress. If the mean rate of growth across all children in the class is low, then the appropriate decision is to intervene at the classroom level to develop a stronger instructional program. Phase I assessment addresses Heller et al.‘s first criterion that the quality of the general education program be such that adequate learning might be expected. Phase 2: After the presence adequate classroom instructional environment has been established. Identification of individuals whose level of performance and rate of improvement are dramatically below those of classroom peers. The purpose is to identify a subset of children at risk for poor outcomes due to their unresponsiveness to the generally effective instructional setting. Phase 3: For this subset of children, assessment continues with the systematic testing of classroom adaptations designed to enhance individual responsiveness in the general education setting. The purpose is to determine whether the regular education setting can be transformed into a productive learning environment for the at-risk student. Only when corrective action fails to yield improved growth does consideration of special services to supplement the general education program become warranted. Phase 4: the value of the special education classification is operationalized as CBM rate of growth in response to those special services. The essential question: Is the student‘s responsiveness to the general education program within the range of classmates? If so, the student was deemed disability-free; if not, the student was considered further for LD identification. If the student responds to the intensive prevention trial, then the student is deemed disability-free (and remediated); he or she then is returned to the original classroom environment. Failure to respond confirms the presence of a LD, and persistence of the academic problem then warrants special education. Three-tiered prevention model  primary intervention consisting of the general education program;  secondary intervention involving the fixed duration, intensive, standard protocol trial (with the goal of remediating the academic deficit rather than enhancing general education);  tertiary intervention synonymous with special education REDEFINING LEARNING DISABILITIES AS INADEQUATE RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTION: THE PROMISE AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS The Promise (Benefits): (1) identification of students using a risk rather than a deficit model (2) early identification and instruction of students with LD (3) reduction of identification bias ie. ethnic group, sex (4) a strong focus on student outcomes. The ideal goal with a response-to-instruction model to LD identification would require these components: (1) ongoing progress-monitoring assessment procedures (2) adequate information about what instructions are most effective and the expected trajectory of outcomes from those instructions (3) a system in which general education was committed to highly effective core academic instruction and behavioral interventions as well as knowledge and resources to implement supplemental programs for at- risk students (4) ultimately, a means for screening and tracking the progress of a large number of students. The Pitfalls: Do We Have Validated Intervention Models and Measures to Assure Instruction Validity?  more studies on some age groups then others  measures are required to index responsiveness or learning over time  validated adaptations or prevention approaches are needed Is Inadequate Response to Instruction a Defensible Endpoint in the Identification Process?  Is the deficit responsible for the lack of learning is best described as a LD o lack of response may be attributable to mental retardation rather than LD. o LD often coexists with other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or conduct disorders.  the need to demonstrate the value of special education and to thereby justify the classification o identification can be defended only if the services it affords result in real benefit How Intensive Should “Instruction” be Defined in a Response-to-Instruction Model
 for LD Identification?  If the child responds to this relatively intensive instruction, has the presence of a disability (and a need for special education) been disconfirmed?  Can the child be returned to the general education program without further support? Is it sound to infer that no inherent deficit caused the initial problem?  Research is needed to identify what proportion of children are likely to be false positive entries to the response-to-instruction assessment process Are There Adequately Trained Personnel to Implement a Response-to-Instruction Model? When Should Due Process be Initiated? Unit 4: Definitions of learning disabilities in Canadian provinces and territories. Canadian policy and legislation regarding special education have traditionally differed from province to province, as educational legislation and policies are under the jurisdiction of individual provinces rather than the federal government. The differing individual provincial policies were reflective of their unique provincial multicultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic conditions. Despite the numerous, recent policy revisions, the concepts of intelligence and a discrepancy between intelligence and academic achievement have been retained in most provinces, which contrasts with current research and applied perspectives on LD. The discrepancy definition has been overwhelmingly discredited in numerous studies. The use of IQ scores and the vague conceptualization of processing disorder are major difficulties with the current definitions. SUMMARY: First, the Canadian tradition of interprovincial variability in defining LD has continued, but the majority of provinces have retained an intellectual-achievement discrepancy definition of LD that is not supported in the empirical or applied literatures. The second trend in provincial policy definition is to conceptualize LD as a neurobiologically based cognitive processing disorder, consistent with definitions promoted by Canadian advocacy groups, although the validity and utility of this model has not yet been clearly established. Finally, findings of increased LD identification criteria, such as those associated with processing disorder definitions, contrast with the current noncategorical provincial funding mechanisms for students with LD Week 5 Summary of… Approaches to multicultural education in pre-service teacher education: Philosophical frameworks and models for teaching. Author: Earl Bradford Smith Introduction: - Diversity in classroom reflects demographic shift in US - White will no longer be majority, it will eventually be just one member of several minorities - Increase in ethnic diversity  projected to continue in future - Administration should recognize and reinforce throughout the curriculum the increasing diversity in society as it relates to race + ethnicity - Teachers must re-learn how to deal with this  traditional educational practices and assumptions will soon be moot (eg: majority-minority relations  many schools today do not have majority ethnic groups, and the nature of others is changing from old white majority, black minority to latino-back or Chinese-latino) Focusing on Teachers: - teachers have to understand/appreciate the cultural complexities of home life as well (affect of socioeconomic class, gender, etc.) - teacher preparedness  large focus on educational reform initiatives historically and today - changes that emerged in 1980s (no child left behind, a nation at risk, etc.)  emphasized the need for teachers to have abilities to work effectively with racially, ethnically, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse students - traditionally barred segregation because of 2 main reasons: o constitutionally sanctioned racially diverse classes exists as a result of integration o preparation of teachers to effectively and respectfully teach all students is an absolute necessity A cautionary note: - children are individuals and cannot be made to fit into any preconceived mold of how they are ―supposed‖ to act - must recognize when there is a problem with a particular child  how to seek its cause in most broadly conceived fashion - knowledge about culture is only one tool for educators - children these days will benefit from mass diversity of schools  acquire multicultural knowledge and skills needed to function effectively in their local communities, nation, and world Constructing curriculum: - teachers must touch on: opportunities in relation to understanding the histories of oppression and privilege, must always be couched in understanding of institutional and organizational racism. - Purpose of this analysis: demonstrate how implementing a multicultural education philosophy supported by immersion experience models can help classroom teachers promote educational equity and social justice while helping all students reach academic and social potential - Focused on: published data-based research studies that examine preparation of teachers for school that serve historically underserved, multicultural student populations The Need for Multicultural education: - diverse classrooms provide opportunity to teach students from many different cultures and groups how to live together cooperatively and productively - Challenges: racial prejudice, discrimination - Multicultural education = type of educational reform  major goal to change the structure of education institutions to accommodate all students of all abilities, races, religions and genders + provide them with equal chance for academic achievement Maximize and minimize: - teachers need to be prepared to increase opportunities given and lower challenges of this multicultural education - effective teacher education programs are must o help teachers appreciate diversity o help portray these divers e groups realistically and from variety of perspectives - historically teachers employed 2 ways of appreciating/acknowledging multiculturalism: 1. ―multicultural festival‖ – fun, foods, entertainment  conveys notion that diversity issues only relevant during celebratory moments 2. ―transformative‖ = weave cultural perspective throughout curriculum Growing out of Social Ferment: - civil rights in 1960 – eliminate discrimination in public accommodations, housing, employment, and education - gave rise to multicultural education - multicultural educator = comprehensive reform NOT one-shot, superficial additions to programming - multicultural teacher education = affirming what country stands for: opportunity, equality, and realization of student‘s dreams Creating Caring professionals‘: - well documented that pre-service teachers = difficulty transferring knowledge from teacher education to complex teaching realities - Also challenges to majority of educators  white, middle class teachers  ill prepared in knowledge, skills, attitudes, etc. to teach cross-cultural competency (they lack it themselves) - Teacher education programs = need to produce learning experiences that increase ―transformative learning‖ regarding multicultural education  stimulate critical reflection of one‘s own philosophies, morals and readiness to teach equity and excellence - Current teacher educators draw heavily on one or two multicultural courses – not enough!  although they can build on psychological theory to better help prepare pre-service teachers to learn with students from diverse backgrounds Teacher perceptions and beliefs about culturally, racially, and linguistically diverse students: - difficult to alter pre-service teachers‘ attitudes and beliefs about teaching - beliefs influence teacher behaviour and expectations - important goal of teacher education: lead perspective teachers toward beliefs about teaching that will maximize learning for ALL students - 2 ways to address: o bringing into the teaching profession more teachers who are from culturally diverse communities o trying to develop attitudes and multicultural knowledge base of predominately white cohorts of pre-service students - BUT – majority of ethnic and cultural composition of teaching force = relatively unchanged Cultural competence and context: - not only do educators have to ensure that message of multicultural education is NOT just on remediation of racial discrimination and adoption of unbiased educational practices in school and classrooms (though this IS VERY important aspect) - ALSO need to highlight pedagogy in cultural context and prescribe future classroom and school in which culturally diverse learners will find educational practices that VALUE and develop their individual behaviour styles an culture-specific knowledge base - Need fundamental reform at teacher education level if educational system is to no longer discriminate by use of ―dominant‖ western cultural structures , values, and practices. Recent Reports (on process of learning to teach in culturally diverse schools) - in order for teachers to meet the needs of diverse students: o show sensitivity towards cultural diversity o capitalize on strengths o avoid accentuating weaknesses o of culturally diverse groups - problems have been identified in diverse student population: o differences affect learning styles, behaviours, mannerisms, relationships at school and at home - solutions: o beliefs of educators must e understood - idea of multicultural education = still generates clashes of opinions o why polling pre-service teachers concerning these issues is important – provides new insight o previous studies have demonstrated lack of understanding/appreciation of diverse communities Stressing Critical Reflection: - to achieve goal = teachers must contextualize teacher candidates‘ increased knowledge of content and pedagogy and engage teachers in critical reflection o must include crucial element of critical cultural self-reflection (realistic examples, situations) - prospective teachers should become knowledgeable regarding curriculum publications that can assist them in teaching multicultural issues Developing questions - projects for student education methods should address: o what developmental stages could be identified in our teacher candidates‘ process of learning to teach in culturally responsive ways? o what impact if any could be identified that experiential education might have one teacher education candidates‘ process of adopting culturally responsive teaching strategies? o What issues could we, the teacher educators, discover in our process of attempting to model and promote culturally responsive pedagogy? o Given the nature of teacher education programs – what can teacher educators do to lead candidates toward specific strategies for culturally relevant teaching? - Video cases to model strategies + teacher‘s thinking required to modify approaches in response to students + bolster their understanding specific strategies for culturally responsive teaching - Simulated cultural experiences and community experiences during methods courses - Unlikely these techniques will be employed soon – due to current time limitations of teacher education methods experience Types of Multicultural programs: - teacher candidates must understand that to become culturally responsive = nurtured by living, experimenting, travelling and reading - must also realize that they are works in progress - multicultural education field will move forward by providing teacher candidates with assessments that provide more opportunities for reflection, attitude change, and organization of new knowledge A New Mission: - multicultural education = requires substantially more knowledge and radically different skills for teachers - prepared to address substantial diversity in experience children bring with them to school - teaching for universal learning = demands highly developed ability to discover what children know, and can do, as well a show they think and how they learn – match needs to individual children - responsibility of teacher educators: o help all teachers (novice and experienced) – acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes, dispositions needed to work effectively with a diverse student population - immersion of preservice teachers into urban setting has many benefits – most importantly learning culture and pedagogy of students whom one will teach - most important = learning the culture and pedagogy of the students with whom one will teach Future Challenge: - 30 years ago, Smith‘s Teachers for the Real world  identified 3 problems in preparing teachers to teach poor students: 1. teachers were unfamiliar with the backgrounds of poor students and the communities where they lived 2. teacher education programs ordinarily did little to sensitize teachers were unfamiliar with the backgrounds of poor students and the communities where they lived 3. teachers lacked preparations skills needed to perform effectively in classroom - conclusion of smith  most teachers education programs prepared students to teach children much like themselves – he called for a major overhaul of teacher education programs with respect to diversity and equity issues - BUT little has changed since then  still very much monocultural approach o Teaching practices benefit middle-class, white students o Fails provide equally for poor, ethnic, and linguistic minority students - Suggested 3 things must be added to provide effective teacher education for diverse communities: 1. Clear philosophical framework 2. Program structure that embodies the philosophical principles and presents clear models for their implementation 3. Practical framework component that provides teacher candidates with opportunity to apply and recreate what they are learning Becoming Change Agents: - goal of multicultural teacher education program = help prospective teachers become change agents who can impact and alter power relationships though curriculum, instructional practices and individual and collective action toward more personal and structural relationships in schools, districts, communities - multicultural education = tool of education equity and excellence - professionals from all fields should be able to respond effectively to people form diverse backgrounds The Debate Continues: - multiculturalists must rethink cause and revise agenda/strategies - equal human worth = core of civil rights = core of multicultural education - diversity without equality = oppression - important to determine: 1. what preservice teachers regard as the most desirable goal for multicultural education 2. what colleges of education should do regarding the multicultural education curri8culum of preservice teachers - multicultural education goal (Banks): to help students develop cross-cultural competency within the American national culture, with their own subculture and within and across different sub-societies and cultures - IF we are to successfully educate ALL of our children: must remove stereotypes, monocultural instructional methodologies, ignorance, social distance, biased research, and racism. - We MUST develop clear-sightedness  quote from Native Alaskan educator: ―In order to teach, I must know you. I pray for us all the strength to fight to teach our children what they must learn, and the humility and wisdom to learn from them so that we might better each other‖ Summary of… The Impact of Teachers’ Expectations on Diverse Learner’s Academic Outcomes Authors: Elaine Sirota and Lora Bailey - It has been demonstrated that teachers‘ attitudes vary according to gender, race, ethnicity, and native language the learner - It is theorized that this ―cultural mismatch‖ = may account for phenomenon of learning gap between minority and non-minority children - According to studies, both black and white teachers perceive white students more positively than they do minority students (including those who speak English as second language) - Often language barriers are mistaken for learning deficits - Children‘s academic outcomes are STRONGLY influenced by teacher‘s perception (positive or negative) - There has also been reported a significant correlation between teacher‘s views of racially diverse children and how children feel about themselves - Focus of remainder of article will explore teacher‘s perceptions of… o English language learners (ELLs) o Racially diverse learners - AND present research based methods proven to challenge teacher‘s notions + THUS decrease learning gaps between minority and majority students - FINALLY – discuss impact of teachers perceptions on children‘s learning outcomes and self-perceptions Teachers‘ Perceptions of Black and White Children‘s capacity to learn: - In reality = black students achievement has been poorer than white children - Why?  restricted learning opportunities, inequitable funding, segregation, and institutional racism - Black children‘s academic performance= affected by teacher‘s expectations, perceptions, behavioural styles, and the type and frequency of their interactions Studies have shown… Study Race/Ethnic based findings Other findings (Deitx + -more experienced teachers held -Boys of both races Purkey, perceptions… received fewer positive 1969) -Black boys and girls received smaller share designations from of positive designations from teachers during teachers than girls of interviews both races -White boys and girls received larger share of -less experienced white positive traits from interviewed teachers graduate students held no expectations according to race (Spitz 1999) -Found no diff in levels of expectations from white, first-year teachers Several - teachers‘ perceptions of black students and studies students‘ perceptions = interdependent (1999-2007) - 2 factors had strong correlation = student‘s perception of self and teacher‘s attitude towards child - THUS teacher‘s negative views of children = do and affect student outcomes Mazer -Socioeconomic factors - Examined 10-12, 13, 15 year old children (1971) = sought to determine whether teachers‘ also played role in perceptions varied with race teacher‘s negative view - Result? – race did play role in teacher‘s of child negative views (especially for black children) - Majority of teachers were white, but both black and white teachers shared tendency! - These views strongly correlated to students‘ self image Expectations for Other minority children: - some research has shown that certain minority races elicit more positive responses from teachers than negative - namely: teachers have more positive perceptions of Asian students than they do for their white counterparts Studies show… Study Race related results Non-race related results Wong (1980) - Some teachers refer to Asian Americans as ―model minorities - Teachers perceived social, emotional, academic characteristics of Asian children MORE positively than for whites Several Asian students have surpassed the studies educational achievements of whites Goyette & - mere fact that Asian children perceived Xie 1999 as having capacity to achieve higher learning outcomes impacts their achievement - high expectation play a role in Asian children‘s performance in classroom AND on standardized tests Other studies - teachers hold negative perceptions of Asian ELL students than they do their white ELL students Jenson and - anglos are rated most favorably by - students‘ social class Rosenfeld teachers was significant (1974) variable in determining how students were rated - middle class anglo (whites) rated better than lower class whites – BUT had no effect on ratings of ELLs McCombs - teachers base their expectations on race - social class important and Grey and social class for determining teacher (2001) - found that teachers (of all experience expectations as well levels) represented high-IQ Hispanic children were evaluated less positively than high-IQ white children (regardless of social class) - Therefore, teachers are holding students to different academic standards depending on their race and social class… - teachers perceive blacks and Hispanics less positively than whites - they also hold Asian American to higher standards - THUS not creating an equal learning environment for all students Pre-service teachers‘ view of minority students: - Studies demonstrate teachers enter field without understanding minority student‘s background experiences and needs - White prospective teachers hold different perceptions about whether or not students from different racial or ethnic backgrounds are teachable… Studies show… Study Racial results Non race results Tettegah - Interviewed white pre-service teachers (1996) perceived… - Asian American students highest in appropriate behaviour dimension, - African American students highest in personal-social dimension - African Americans also rated lowest in cognitive-autonomous-motivational category Several - preservice teachers have concluded that studies no matter how effective their teaching (1996-2005) might be, certain outcomes are inevitable - outcomes vary according to student‘s racial or ethnic identity Cho and - observed effect of multicultural - preservice teachers feel decastro- education course on preservice that they are largely ill- ambrosetti teacher‘s attitudes… equipped to teach (2005-2006) students from diverse backgrounds Impact of Teacher‘s perceptions on minority children‘s self-perception: - studies show that children‘s self-perception influenced by teacher‘s perceptions - studies demonstrate that because children have perceived that their teachers prefer white students to Latino students some children adopted similar views - children‘s‘ own race or ethnicity and attitudes towards people from diverse backgrounds affected their perceptions of discrimination, such as their definitions of discrimination Conclusions: - teacher‘s negative expectations can have a critical effects on… o opportunities available for children to learn o actual achievement of students - minority students (Latino, African American) report and/or feel… o being graded unfairly due to their race/ethnicity o wrongfully subjected to disciplinary actions by their teachers o discouraged form joining advanced level classes - discrimination associated with: o low self esteem o decreased academic motivation o increased racial mistrust o problem behaviours o greater levels of anger and depression symptoms - although teachers are taught that all can learn – experiences may sometimes tell them otherwise - result? o Many teachers (regardless of experience with minority pupils) expect less from minority students o Preservice teachers = same views - THUS: o Teachers‘ attitudes toward minority students may contribute to their poor performance on academic test Implications for Educators: - Teacher education courses  focusing increasing awareness of issue related to diversity  affect preservice teachers‘ disposition towards minority students - BUT because many preservice teachers have pre-conceived beliefs that course are ineffective for equipping them to use these practices, programs must infuse clinical components within the courses or identify a separate co-requisite practicum course - MUST support in-service teachers in their work with diverse children o Need understand the essence of their own perceptions and how their attitudes impact child‘s self concept o Need to know negative perceptions result in negative outcomes - SUM: teachers must be given opportunity to investigate and challenge their own perceptions and use their reflections to shape their interactions with minority children Week 5 Continued 3 Online articles discussing the debate regarding an Africentric School, which opened in fall 2009 (by the way – through a quick research I discovered that they are in fact opening a SECOND africentric school for grade 8 and above! Seems they have had great success so far…) All three articles demonstrated arguments for both sides of debate, which I have summarized here. Please take a look at the articles, however, if not simply because they are interesting to read… Article “For” debate “Against” debate CBC - children will learn about black heritage - not focused on separation, just being fair – same curriculum will be taught, just enriched with black cultural relevancies - purpose: combat disproportionately high drop out rate (40%) of black students in Toronto school system - purpose: nurture sense of belonging and community, as well as high academic standards CTV Goal: encourage experiences and - not enough – the black community contributions of African people with a wants for schools to respond to goal of discouraging students in black socio-economic issues such as community from dropping out poverty, nutrition and self esteem - committed to ―evidence-based‖ - there are methods that could be approach to student success created that are still all-inclusive - open to proposals from community - need to respond to every kid, no members, educators, experts about matter what colour ways to improve success for black - other cultures exist that also have students high drop out rates – also need several things to ensure community support involvement and accountability: - setting up one school will not 1. survey to Toronto public schools for address the issue across the city – parents so that the board can gauge this is too narrow a focus interest in Africentric school 2. community forums held throughout city – parents and communities a chance to give feedback 3. community survey to try to determine best location for school Other strategies that have been approved by the board: 1. ―program area review team‖ – recommend program and operational model 2. establish pilot program for existing schools  integrate histories, cultures, experiences and contributions of people of African descent and other racialized groups 3. establishing ―Staff development, research, and innovation centre‖ – assess best way for improving success of marginalized and vulnerable students 4. drawing up plan to address underachievement for all marginalized and vulnerable students BBC - vocal advocates in black - ―the belief that if we teach kids communities are saying: ―their kids about their social and cultural are not actively engaged in the identity they‘re going to perform a education we‘re providing for them lot better is just stupid‖ – Anthony  no mentor, no encouragement‖ Hutchinson - want environment where black kids - black children are bored in school – will WANT to come to school for very complex reasons - Influential black leaders and - Hutchinson claims that out of the academics = demonstrated the 100 families he works with, almost success of similar black oriented 80% are non-supportive of their schools in the U.S. children‘s eucation - Teachers must recognize the - Family issues are key – not the experience of black children not just school in terms of their black, but in terms - Could potentially cause of how their ―race is related to other marginalization interests, and tap into that‖ - Dangerous use of public funds – - One teacher came forward saying could lead to future problems + how 13 of the 16 year olds in his slippery slope high school class are unlikely to - Segregation is not value of the graduate school system in Canada - This is not segregation, white - Martin Luther King fought so hard children are welcome to bring blacks and whites together – - Children are already segregated in as one, we are taking a step public schools backwards - Unit 7 Article 1 Measuring Creativity in Research and Practice - Barbara Kerr and Camea Gagliardi  Creativity is most critical to human advancement  the capacity to solve problems in new ways and to produce works that are novel, appropriate, and socially valued Measurement Issues to Consider  the definition of creativity may vary from one instrument to another o most researchers agree aspects of creativity are originality, appropriateness, and the production of works of value to society  they have had difficulty agreeing on appropriate instruments and methods in operationalizing these concepts. o Sternberg - creativity should not be considered in isolation from other constructs of human abilities  it is best understood in a societal context o Creativity questions existing societal agendas and proposes new ones, and wisdom balances the old with the new o the evaluation of creativity tests fare much better when considered in light of recent advances and when they are interpreted in light of limitations.  it is sometimes unclear what creativity instruments actually predict o In many cases, children identified by creativity measures have not produced significant creative works as adults o Plucker and Runco - when people engage in creative activity their thoughts and actions are guided by personal definitions of creativity and beliefs about how to foster and evaluate creativity that may be very different from the theories developed by creativity experts  Creating instruments that correspond well with the implicit theories of the people completing them addresses the definitional problem but also yields a socially valid technique for instrument design that is particularly sensitive to cross- cultural and discipline-specific research questions.  creativity always needs to be assessed in the context of other psychological and environmental variables o Csikszentmihalyi - characteristic of creative individuals is mastery of a domain of knowledge or skill  without this, diverse thinking or ideational fluency are not likely to lead to creative products  creative people seized on whatever opportunities they had been given and then shaped them to meet their own ends, rather than being shaped by genes or events.  concluded that the major distinguishing characteristic of creative people is the capacity to experience ―flow‖ - that experience of timelessness and oneness with the activity in which one is engaged  they are caught up in the process of creating to enhance the flow state.  *life conditions enhance creativity o psychological conditions can block creativity  creative people often ―live on the edge‖ and choose more independent lifestyles s may lead to substance abuse and other self-destructive behaviors that dull creativity  Pritkzer – creative people use alcohol because their work is uncertain and plagued by rejection, which is difficult, stressful, and anxiety-provoking.
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