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PSYC 4470 (39)

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University of Guelph
PSYC 4470
Anthony Winson

Three types of scientific researchNaturalistic observationsobservation of behaviour of people or animals in their natural environment oLeast formal and constrained by fewest rulesoProvide foundation of biological and social sciencesCorrelational studiesexamination of relations between 2 measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or animalsoInvolve more formal measurements of environmental events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour Experimentsstudy which researcher changes value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation effects value of dependent variable oOnly research which can confirm existence of causeandeffect relations among variables Five steps summarizing the rules of scientific method1 Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical causeandeffect relations among variablesInvolves identifying variables behaviours and environmental and physiological events and describing relations among them in general terms2 Design the experiment experiments involve manipulation of independent variables and observation of dependent variables each variable must be operationally defined and independent variable must be controlled so that it is only thing responsible for changes to dependent variable3 Perform experimentorganize material train people to perform it recruit volunteers randomly assign volunteers to experimental group of control group4 Evaluate hypothesis by examining data from studyInvolves special mathematical procedures used to determine whether observed effect is statistically significant5 Communicate resultsArticle conferences conventionsReplicationrepetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous results will be obtains uncovers statistical anomalies and incompetently conducted researchGreat scientific research occurs as result of longterm research programs in which findings are part of collective endeavourPsychological research in Canada is supported byNatural Sciences and Engineering Research CouncilSocial Sciences and Humanities Research CouncilCanadian Institutes of Health Research Medical Research Council
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