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SOAN 2111 Lecture Notes - Smith Machine, Invisible Hand, Economic Freedom

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

of 3
November 5, 2012
- The midterm is out of 30 marks 15% of your final grade
- Section I
o Multiple choice
o 10 questions
o answer in the exam booklet
- Section II
o Medium length answer
o Answer two out of four following questions in the exam booklet
o Each question is worth 10 marks for a total of 20 marks
o Each answer should be approximately a page
- ...... missed the rest LOL
II. Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Introduction and Works
- struggling around concepts of labour and how much people should be paid
how do we decide on how much something is work and how much money we
should make in a particular role we involve ourselves in understanding of
capitalism is relevant to that time period only wrote in this pre-capitalist
era Marx talks to the ghost of Adam Smith
- machine model of society
- theory of functionalism
- economic writing
- The Wealth of Nations (1776) (900 pages)
o “Trust the market”, “long live the free market”, “individual people
acting out of their own selfish interests will together produce Adam
Smith’s famous “invisible hand – the hand of the Free Market that
makes all for the best in the long run…”
o market is the ruler of human existence invisible hand hand of the
free market
o taken him 12 years of contemplation, 12 years of writing, 3 years of
revisions, etc.
- he was in close touch with Benjamin Franklin, Voltaire, and most of the
practical philosophers
- established the machine model of society and applied it to society as a whole
- first thinker to talk about functionalism (even before Durkheim)
- “Economic freedom is the obvious and simple system of natural liberty”
- unintended consequences of allowing everyone free economic reign would
be the greater welfare of all even though the intended result was the
accumulation of oneself
- The Wealth of Nations
o The division of labour Karl Marx’s major source of labour and labour
o He influenced functionalist theorists and Marxist theorists
- The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759)
o Why some conduct is considered moral and why other conduct is not
o Smith was interested in what was moral and what was not moral
o We experience other people’s actions how can people imagine
themselves in the position of others? See yourself from the outside?
take the role of the other
o Sympathy, empathy and morality and one’s own self interest (Adam
Smith Concerns) how we feel the injustices to other people how we
come to hate oppression that’s suffered by ourselves or another
o At the thought of his situation
o Propriety, prudence, and benevolence
Propriety: Virtue is the proper gov’t and direction of all of their
affections you have the right to things
Prudence: virtue is the pursuit of your own private interests
Benevolence: kindness, goodness for others virtue lies in
exercise of making others happy
- Invisible hand distributes good equally
- Does the End justify the means? (film) (falls into the work of Macaulay and
o Dam being built in Malaysia 30 villages evacuated many acres of
rainforest destroyed
o The West (America) says no Malaysia says you just want us to
remain a museum while you guys move forward
o Utilitarianism judge actions in accordance to consequences
“always tell the truth” but may cause consequences
utilitarian movement founded by Bentham came from
family of lawyers dedicated himself to the British legal
system and social policy “nature has placed mankind under
the governance of of pain and pleasure it’s for them to point
out what we ought to do” – maximize amount of pleasure,
minimize the amount the pain greatest happiness for the
greatest number
why are these things the right things to do? What is deviance?
Who defines deviance?
o Predict the effects of the dam what will make the greatest
happiness? What’s the pleasure-pain ratio?
o Benefits clearly greater than the consequences? Will it make the
majority of the Malaysian people happier by giving them a higher
standard of living? But not everyone dreams of a modern life in the
Catherine Macaulay (1731-1791)
- educated at home
- 1760 married Scottish Physician
- he died a few years later
- 1785 travelled to American with her husband (William Graham) met George
- sex role differentiation could be limited to boys as well argued boys should
be taught the fine arts and crafts and females should be taught the academic
curriculum - girls and boys were modeled by society into these distinct
Major Literacy Contributions
- eight volumes on ‘history of England’ (1763-1783)
- ‘letters on education’ (1790)
- major contribution to methodology
Contributions to the Social Sciences
- Macaulay’s empirical approach is based on the work of John Locke
- ‘letters on education;
- set out a comprehensive proposal for a liberal education based on Lockean
principles. Holding that ‘experience… is the only efficacious instructor’
- outlined the nature of experience; non-sexist approach to education (unlike
- believe in the empiricist concept of sympathy in human nature
- model environmentalist “humans and animals all part of creation in which
humans, thanks to their special gifts have special responsibilities”
In Addition she…
- supported both French and American Revolution
- supported non-sexist education
- refused to glorify war
- she was a real forerunner in feminist politics not individual sexes that
differentiated men and women but it was the upbringing society made us
this way
- experience shapes a women’s place in society
- Rousseau became a well respected theorist of the day and the work of the
feminist theorist was not as widely excepted
- Two enlightened method going on
o Rousseau’s
o Macaulay’s – in response to Rousseau location, situation, education
not just about what class or gender you were born proposal to
reform educational standards of her day
Lynn McDonald argues that the Enlightenment was a period of democracy and
skepticism Macaulay was recognized during her time as a revolutionary writer
who was in keeping with the principles of the Enlightenment