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Lecture 10

SOAN 2112 Lecture 10: Martineau

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter

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Methodology (19th century)- de Tocqueville, Martineau, Taylor and Mill
Methodology- 19th century (background of this period)
- Statistical societies emerged
- Social question has to do with what was right
- In the us social questions prompted methodological innovation
- Jae Adas
o Very first social worker
o Conducted first quantitative research in Chicago school
- American sociology rooted in quest for human improvement
o Applications of theory to make a better society
- Continued importance of French-British connection
- Thinking about statistical societies during this time and making society a better place
Harriet Martineau
- Travelled the world to get better understanding of how tot understand cultures
- Member of the distinguished literary circle which includes J.S Mill, Harriet Taylor
- Was writer and journalist
- Wrote using her own name
- Afflicted with hearing loss
- First English journalist writing for living under her own name
- Taslated Cotes Cour de Philoshie Positive to the Positive Philosophy
- Concern with methodology
- Ceated the ho to osee aes ad oals
o Instructs travelers how to study foreign cultures
How to observe and take notes while being respectful
- 2 years of study in America
- wrote society in America in 1837
- admired democracy and admired to learn
- wanted to witness workings of democratic institutions
- lived in well to do homes, cabins, log cabins
o saw it all
- interviewed farmers, marketers, lawyers
- challenged slavery and the conditions under which they were working
- stressed there were 2 parties to the work of observations
o considering the observed
o and considering the observer
- How to observe morals and manners- the observed and the observer
- Writing about new discovers with out bias
- One had to over come prejudice
- One had to be sympathetic over those they are observing
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- We have to have integrity to cover all of our research without bias
- Wrote an essay on the art of thinking
o You need to plan; good planning has to be part of your research questions
- Her methodology is just as important and creating sound questions
- Journal should be kept
- Keep observation facts but generalize and make comments once you return home
- The work of generalization should be deferred until the research returned home
- Always have a notebook handy
- Health of a community was index of it morals
o Commitment of a nation to the health and welfare of its citizens
- No ette plae to stud people tha i eetes
o The brief language of the dead will teach more than the longest __ of the living
- Research should turn to the arts to understand
o Especially to songs
o Will gie ide to peoples oals
o Books too
o Newspapers indicated political will
- Empiricism
o Stressing methods
o Hard line empiricism
o Sought cures and methods
- If scientists knew how to study disease- the plague might have been stopped
- Interested in knowing the depths of things (i.e. disease, war)
- Martineau was a laissez-faire liberal
- Raised money for Oberlin College
- Illustrations of political economy
o Used fictional characters
o There was a moral
- The greatest happiness of the greatest number
- The American republic had demonstrated that people can govern itself
- It was in America that the ideals of a democracy were achieved
- America had this different kind of democracy
- Promoted the enlightenment values throughout her work
- Declaration of independence
o Wanted to investigate if this applied to women
- Found that American people could govern itself
o Humanity was capable, given the right circumstances, able to govern itself
- Principles of universal justice were bluntly contradicted by the institution of slavery
- Egalitarian American was divided by classes
- Noticed there was tension- half were free half were slaves
- In Jacksonian American there was a struggle between aristocracy and democracy
o Poverty did exist as did the rich
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