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Lecture 3

# SOAN 2120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: List Of Statistical Packages, Grounded Theory, Subculture

Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
Professor
D Walters
Lecture
3

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Types&of&variables&review&and&Correlation&
Quantitative&Variables
Continuous&(rank)
Numerical
Categorical&variables
Ordinal&Level&Variables&
Correlation
Scatterplots&play&an&important&role&when&exploring&the&relationship&
between&two&quantitative&variables
They&allow&us&to&identify&the&problem&cases,&the&form&of&the&
relationship&&
§
Only&when&the&relationship&is&linear&does&it&make&sense&to&use&the&
correlation&coefficient&
The&correlation&coefficient&is&a&good&summary&of&the&measure&of&the&
strength&and&the&direction&of&a&linear&relationship
§
Ranges&from&-1&(Perfect&negative)&to&1&(Perfect&positive)
§
0&means&no&linear&relationship
§
Does&not&tell&us&the&slope&of&the&line&
§
Correlation&does&not&mean&causation&
We&infer&a&causal&relationship&based&on&our&understanding&of&the&
temporal&relationship&between&the&variables&
Outliers
What&do&we&do&with&outliers?
Interrogate&it
If&a&coding&error&
Get&rid&of&it&
®
Fail&the&rejected&theory&
§
Variable&Classification
Independent&variables&(Cause)
§
Dependent&Variable&(Effect&Variable)
§
Sometimes&identifying&a&causal&order&can&be&problematic
Relationship&between&education&and&motivation
§
Educational&Attainment&(1-23)
§
Motivational&Scale&(1-100)
§
High&score&implies&greater&motivation
§
Good&theorizing&
§
§
How&do&we&know&if&a&relationship&is&significant?
Line&of&best&fit
We&are&trying&to&model&a&causal&relationship&
§
The&higher&the&correlation,&the&stronger&the&relationship&(Steep&and&
tightly&compact&slopes)
§
Computer&statistical&software&programs&generate&significance&tests
§
Likelihood-probability&(Chance)
Education&increases&income
Given&the&date,&the&probability&that&changes&in&education&do&
not&cause&changes&in&income&is&approximately&p=.01&(1&in&100)&
chance&that&we're&wrong&in&whatever&we're&claiming&&
§
Common&Thresholds&
P=.05&(95%&chance&that&there&is&a&relationship)&(5%&wrong)&
P=.01
P=.001
§
These&are&called&alpha&levels&or&thresholds
§
Once&we&cross&these&thresholds&we&can&argue&that&our&results&are&
significant&
§
Statistics&do&not&equal&Mathematics&
Never%use%the%word%prove
There&is&always&room&for&doubt&since&we&are&working&with&probability
The&issue&of&control
Statistical&control&
§
This&is&not&quite&as&good&as&experimental& control
Have&we&controlled&for&everything?
§
The&relationship&between&length&of&big&toe&and&income&is&spurious
Gender&can&affect&the&results&
Age&affects&income&and&size
Regression&Analysis
Survey&Research
Very&good&to&tap&into&attitudes
§
§
Can&be&used&on&a&large&number&of&respondents
§
Very&generalizable
§
Control
§
Quantitative&Research&
Generate&theories&
Test&them&using&methods&that&allow&you&to&control&for&other&
possible&explanations&
§
Qualitative&Research&
Does&not&involve&statistics&
Sensitive&information
Establish&rapport
Not&restricted&by&a&rigorous&research&agenda&
Qualitative&Interviews1.
Participant&Observation&2.
Qualitative&interviews
Open&ended&questions&
Tell&me&how&you&feel?
Respondents&(Own&words)&(Not&restricted)
§
Researchers&can&probe&(rapport)
§
Strengths&
Provide&more&rich,&descriptive,&detailed&information&
§
Better&suited&for&sensitive&interviews&
§
Limitations&
Time&consuming&(conduct&interview&and&transcribe)
§
Expensive
§
Effectiveness-researcher&dependent&
§
Participant&observation
Observing&people&in&their&natural&habitat
"hands-on"&approach
Researchers&participate&(rapport)
Grounded&theory&
Exploratory
No&variables&
PO&researchers&also&conduct&interviews&
"Deviant&Subculture&of&Rugby"&
Games,&practices,&rugby&tours,&beer-ups&
§
Strengths:
More&interesting
§
More&valid
More&thorough
Generalizable& (real&world)
§
Limitations:
More&subjective&(researchers&point&of&view)
§
Generalizability& (beyond&the&group)
§
Lecture'#3
January&26,&2016
12:58&PM