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Lecture 7

SOAN 2120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Square Root, Significant Figures, Standard Deviation

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
David Walters

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September 29, 2016:
Standard Deviants Part 1: Video
Statistics: Smaller groups of numbers that tell a lot about a larger group of numbers; this
is the big picture.
Statistics is how to make sense of data.
Population: The group you need to know information about or gather data from.
Inference: Using one piece of information to infer about other information.
No one can survey all of America, hence you must use a sample or part of the population
to gather data.
And with that data he can make inferences on the rest of America.
Elements of Statistical Problems:
o Identify key question being asked and identify the population.
o Determine the design of the experiment. How much of the population. Survey,
o Establish a method to gather the data.
o Choose a procedure to interpret data.
o See how reliable you data is.
Analyzing the data:
o The first method of presenting data is using graphical display.
o The relative frequency histogram is the most common method; collects data into
o Next put data into the classes and we can then determine the frequencies of each
o The distribution curve is similar to the bell curve and the histogram.
o Range = largest value smallest value.
o Determine the amount of classes you are going to use, can’t be too many and
cannot be too small.
o Class Width = Range Number of classes.
o Class boundaries; where classes end and begin.
o Data should sit between the boundaries not on a boundary.
o Significant digits is the number of decimal places you use, hence 3.1 has two
significant digits.
o You can add a significant digit, such as 0.5 to a class boundary to insure that no
data falls on a boundary.
o Class frequency; the number of measurements falling within each class.
o Class relative frequency; class frequency divided by the amount of values you
Stem and Leaf display:
o Continue next class.
Calculate Standard Deviation:
find more resources at
find more resources at
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