Observation is one of main pillars 9describe objects in relation to their attributes, don t usually exist in nature, have to make them up) Process of taking the fuzzy ideas & coming to agreement about the meaning. Process of specifying what we mean by a term. A clear, verbal specification of your variable (concept) so that others know what it is and can place cognitive borders around it. An abstract term referring to a group of phenomena. That enables us to link separate observations and to make generalizations-i. e. apathy, participation, liberalism. We need to be specific in our definitions for measuring. Can measure anything that s real (actions, physical structures) constructs. Conceptualization: the process of coming to an agreement about what concepts mean and represent with regard to social and physical reality. A sing of the presence or absence of the variable we are studying. We will discover disagreements in definitions of our concepts and indicators of these concepts.