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Lecture 8

lecture 8 - The Causes of Globalization.docx

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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2040
D Rose

The Causes of Globalization Marx and Engels • The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere – cited in Edgell • Recall one of the characteristics of the capitalism mode of production is that it is expansionist in nature Three Approaches to Globalization 1. Hyper-globalists: something entirely new 2. Sceptics: continuation of past developments 3. Transformationists: “historically unprecedented such that states and societies across the globe are experiencing a process of profound change as they try to adapt to a more interconnected but highly uncertain world” Continuity and Change • Movement of goods, images, ideas and ideologies, peoples, technologies etc is not new • Also the movement of jobs too, to places where labor is much cheaper and the rights of the workers are not the focus of the company • Ideas but also identity: referring to the globalization of gays and first nations as a worldwide identity • Time space compression, facilitated by technologies changes, is qualitatively new (jet travel vs steamship, internet vs satellite vs snail mail, mass media vs oral traditions) • Placed importance on the surveillance of people which is facilitated through the evolvement of technology -what kind of impact does this have on our rights as users of mass media components • Technology has facilitated the tracking of our everyday activities through technology Scholte 2005 – three phases 1. Global imagination (to the 18 century) -proto-globalization, more about ideas than reality -the ideas surpass what was actually happening (reality) 2. Incipient globalization (1852-1950s) -international relationships established 3. Full scale globalization (1960s-present) -international relationships expanded in every respect Modernization Theory • Theory used to explain/understand the processes of economic, social, political and religious changes that accompany industrial technological change • Rooted in Enlightenment thinking and Social Darwinism • Evolutionary framework • Societies pass through a series of stages, each progressively “better” than the prior stage AND all societies will go through these stages • Industrialized societies have already passed through these stages, duty is to assist other societies to follow suit • Aid that one country gives to another is not what we think it is, most aid grants are later repaid with huge interests OR there are required specifics that need to happen if the country in need wants money -for example, they can have the money if they buy tools to fix their problems from the “helping” country rather than use their country’s local resources The Path to Modernity • Traditional stage: reciprocity and sharing • Cultural change stage: reintroduction of new technolog
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