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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

LECTURE 11: LOCKE AND ASTELL Wednesday, October 3, 12 HOBBES THINKING MACHINES – in relation to Scientific Revolution  Founder of social thought  Attempts to use new science of today to explain man and society  When we perceive something, our perception is sent to the brain - Senses in our mind are like machines - Sometimes tells us things we want to hear, and see’s things we want to see - Thus, our minds aren’t reliable  All thoughts and sensations in the mind are produced mechanically be the senses and the brain  Early scientists didn’t think a strong ruler was the solution, but thought that science and rational mind would come to the rescue - People need to be detached from personal feelings/thoughts MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES – NEW SCIENCE  Philosophers interested for centuries  Before the 17 century, no one had figured out how to apply math to philosophy  New physics started to replace religious thought - From scientists Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, and Newton - Broke ties of sensory perception and science - Direct observation was no longer related with science  The world had to look at science differently because it was changing  Visual reality was changed (optics/physics) th 17 CENTURY RATIONALISM & EMPIRICISM  Visual study and new science was very different in thought compared to the renaissance  Rationalism = projection of superstition – see’s knowledge independently of reality – it can be rational even though you don’t see the object  Empiricism = see’s knowledge based on observable/physical reality LAWS – NEW SCIENCE  Manipulation used to be common  This baroque period was distinct – counter reformation/new science (diverse period) - RE-EVALUATION OF HUMANITY & our place in the world = Unifying Variable  Philosophers and scientists argued that principles are to be first figured out, then laws will follow SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION  Expression of renaissance and its definite contribution to the modern view Copernicus (1473 – 1543): Planetary movements – mathematical formula Galileo (1564 – 1642): Astronomy Newton (1642 – 1727): Established gravity as a universal force  Astronomy and science – descriptions of the past to the explanations of the future JOHN LOCKE (1632 – 1704): LIFE & IDEAS  British Empiricism  Father of English enlightenment  Empirical philosophers of 17 and 18 centuries were British  Philosophers began to think that science could be used to shed new light on moral philosophy – scientific techniques could be used to explain
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