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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

November 12, 2012 – SOAN 2111/2 French Enlightenment, French Revolution and Sociological Implications II – Jean Jacques (Rousseau (1712-1778) continued… - Marx focused on the economic problems of the lower class and Rousseau is mainly concerned about emotional problems - Marx recommends collective, group action to overcome the social control of the wealthy. Rousseau, in contrast, said more attention should be paid to the education of the individual. - ‘the general will’ - Rousseau a direct forerunner of Durkheim’s ‘collective conscience’… concept of culture structural functionalist Ideas from today… - poor women had to raise their own kids - ‘cult of motherhood’ – did not diminish until the 20 century - peaceful ordered home, what it would bring to the state - women were seen as domestic beings in which they exercised authority – nurturing, training, etc. - Rousseau wrote about women and the motherhood bond - Maternal breastfeeding and opposition to swaddling an infant – mothers did take to nursing their own babies because of Rousseau’s thoughts - Natural differences between the sexes requires that they be educated differently o Wollstencraft would disagree with that  First feminine declaration of independence – rights of women - Rousseau’s belief that human’s are naturally good – it’s society that corrupts us - Talking about we are born good – his essay focuses on the good mother and wishes to shield her child from the crippling effects of social convention - Rousseau’s work – child’s earliest education is the most important and should be done by a women – this is very sexist. o If men were supposed to raise children, they would have the milk to feed the child - Humans are imprisoned by our institutions in society – we are prepared for imprisonment when we are born and swaddled as a baby – you are more constrained - The refusal of mothers to fufill their first duty and hiring them out to strangers to nurse them is a problem for Rousseau - Upper class women freed their own child but left the main duties of motherhood, the caring for. The real nurse is supposed to be the mother, not the hired nurse. III - Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat (Marquis) de Condorcet (1743-1794) - popular education - elected to Legislative Assembly in 1791 - universal education, universal suffrage, equality before the alw, freedom of thought and expression, the right to freedom, and self-determination, the redistribution of wealth, a system of national insurance, equal rights for women --- he advocated for all of these - tyrants and priests have an interest in keeping people in ignorance - ‘natural liberty consists in the right to do anything that does not injure the rights of others…’ - worked on education, probability and data organization o components in writing, probability theory, and hypothesis testing, scientific approach in the study of society - Esquisse d’un tableau Historique (1793-1794) o (the sketch for a historical progress of the human mind) o he was put in prison for some of his writing  it was censored o he died in prison o feminism, equal rights, coding data, working on data, organization of data – his ideas of collecting mortality records - Nothing was certain Condorcet’s Feminism - either everybody
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