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SOAN 2111 (130)
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Lecture

November 14.docx

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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2111
Professor
Linda Hunter

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November 14 First Estate - clergy - established privileged estate by the Catholic church who had wide powers - responsibilities included registrations of births and marriages, censored books – they wer eth emoral police – operating schools and hospitals – distribution relief to the poor - their property was tax free Second Estate - nobility - army, government – high positions in both - collected rent from peasants who lived off their land - collected dues from peasantry – labour dues – taxes on salt, bread, wine, etc. Third Estate - ‘everybody else’ - they did have some wealth - some people who were all working not just peasantry - unless you have status, you have nothing - at least 21 million were peasants - standard of living were horrible - rented from land who were a little better of then they - economic inefficiencies - financial difficulties - peasants with enormous amount of grievances - growth of trade and industry had an effect on the French Revolution- - growth of new critical ideas - Voltaire, Rousseau – presenting idea of liberal society that flourished Barriers to freedom, liberty, equality and brotherhood were torn down. The French Revolution - destroyed the absolute monarchy in France - abolished the feudal system of serfdom - abolished special privileges for the nobility - abolished compulsory church tithes and special privileges for the clergy - abolished imprisonment for debt [Think about this…How did the philosophes and French Revolution change society forever?] The massive estates of the nobility were broken up and the large land holdings of the French Catholic were taken by the state. The French Revolution established the principals of governance that eventually lead to universal male suffrage, equal liability to taxation, separation of church and state, freedom of the press, religious freedom, the metric system, and equality of all people before the law. In criminal cases – the right to a jury trial, the presumption of innocence, the right to an attorney at trial and the right to a fair trial. Napoleon Bonaparte (1801) – people turned to a popular general. He was crowned emperor of France in 1804. Occupies Italy and Spain (1805) - took matters into their own hands – gov’t tried blocking initiatives and blocked out 3 estate – rioting occurred – Tennis Court oath – would not disperse until a new constitution written up for France – Bassteile was a prison – people were sent here when they opposed the ancient regime – in confusion shots were fired and the huge crowd stormed the Bassteile – the capital was in the revolutionary hands and the kings regiment were withdrawn – and that’s when the Tennis court oath came to be – gave the signal for a fresh start of mob violence – the assembly completed it’s famous declaration of the rights of man and citizen – abstract statement of liberal principles of liberal docterns – liberty, property, security and the right to resist oppression – all citizens should take part in framing the law – all people must be equal before the law – the National Assembly worked out the issues of this declaration trying to get rid of the evils of the old regime – trying to curve the power of the church Summary of the Enlightenment
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