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September 11.docx

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Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
David Walters

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September 11, 2012 Chapter 1, 2 and 3 of the textbook (second custom edition) [email protected] - don’t call prof, mister, or sir – call him “David” SPSS software– old copies (last years textbook), library, computer lab, free 14 day trial (, buy it from CCS (Mac/PC) (50 bucks for one year) Theory and Methods Environment – how does the environment influence the people we become? Three men created sociology – Max Weber (symbolic interactionism), Karl Marx (conflict theory) and Emile Durkheim (functionalism) - conflict theory o competing groups o society is organized according to conflict among competing groups – they are competing for resource – power, wealth, prestige o creates class struggle o equality of result – everyone in the end should be equal which would resolve the class conflict - functionalism o function – it serves a purpose or a function o consensus – what’s functional and what’s not – when society becomes dysfunctional, society comes together to get rid of it o argue we need to give everyone equality of opportunity - equality of result vs. equality of opportunity o conflict theorists argues  90% of university professors of natural sciences male  50% of the population is female  in the end, gender distribution should be equal o functionalists argue o 90% of prison population is male o if half the population is female, why don’t we apply gender distribution again???? o Their opportunities should be the same, not the results - Theoretical perspectives – ways of viewing the world o At the extreme  Conflict theorists – conspiracy theorists  Functionalists – naïve – we live in a world without discrimination and social class does not matter - Symbolic Interactionism o Individual level perspective – less interested in macro effects in terms of environment in groups, more interested in individual interpretations of reality o Interpretative school o Meanings behind people’s behaviour – want to tap into what is it that causes that behaviour o Perceptions of reality – interested in the perceptions of reality, not reality itself o Social construct of reality – we all have different constructions - These theoretical perspectives are important o Influence what they study and how they study iti - Contemporary sociology is about research o Quantitative methods – functionalism (conflict also use, just not quite as extensively as functionalists) o Qualitative methods – symbolic interaction (conflict also to use, just less than symbolic) - Sociologists use research methods to determine how the environment influences people (evaluate theories) o Types of theories  Testable theories  Non-testable theories - Karl Marx (non-testable) o Theory about social and economic change  Capitalism – argued capitalism was the most powerful force on the planet and the most evil force on the planet 
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