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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
David Walters

September 27, 2012 Population – parameters – the entire group we are interested in Sample – statistics – a portion of the population Central tendency – mean, median mode Mean – average Median – middle number Mode – most occurring – add X – use value from data set I – which value to start with N – number of values in your data set Measures of variability - range, deviation, variance, standard deviation Range = highest value – lowest value Deviation – how far a measurement is form the mean/average of the set - X minus the mean Variance - to find sample variance – sum of the squared of deviations divided by n minus 1 from the number of values in a set Standard deviation – Relative standing = z-score Take ‘x’ substract mean and divide by standard deviation POPULATION formula: SAMPLE formula:  “s” is the standard deviation  the “x” is where you plug in the obersavtion number… which is the number you see in the data set  the x with line over top is the mean **NOTE THIS: population and sample formula are really the same. You still plug everything in the same way.** outlier – just get rid of it… it’s that number that’s way off from the rest of the data set Understanding z-scores - every observation can be converted to a z-score - z-scores can indicate whether an observation is statistically significantly different from the mean - z-scores can be positive or negative How it Works - a z-score tells us how many standard deviations an observation is from the mean General Rules - 95% of all observations will be within approximately + or – 2 standard deviations of the mean - 99% of all observation will be within approximately + or – 2.6 standard deviations of the mean - Thus,
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