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Lecture.mar.4.& 8.docx

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Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

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th Lecture Notes Mon. Mar. 4 2013 The Ethics and Politics of Social Research Ethical & political consideration -ethical considerations -not always apparent to us -norms that describe what’s ethical and what’s not -political considerations -subtle, ambiguous, arguable -political norms -e.g. use of stems cells in research (ethical and political) History of research ethics 1. nuremberg code -10 items -from the Nazi war crimes -“the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential” 2. thalidomide (1950’s) -not relate to an experiment so to speak, a medical drug -approved as a sedative in Europe (1950’s) -drug prescribed to control sleep and nausea throughout pregnancy -found to cause severe deformities in the fetus -many patients did not know it was not approved by the FDA nor did they give informed consent, 12 000 babies were born with severe deformities -did not effect mental capacities, affected limbs -doctors etc. that should have known better were prescribing this drug to ppl 3. declaration of Helsinki (1964) -world medical associations declaration of Helsinki replaces the Nuremburg code (1964) -research with humans should be based on the results from laboratory and animal experimentation -research protocols should be reviewed by an independent committee prior to initiation -informed consent form research participants in necessary -risks should not exceed benefits 4. tuskagee syphilis study (1932-1974) -started as a US public health project -600 low-income African American males, 400 of whom were infected with syphilis -“free medical examinations” promised to them and families but not told about having syphilis study (did not know the true study project) -no treatment before 50’s -penicillin is the cure (60’s) -they did not tell the subjects about the cure on purpose at first -they did not treat the syphilis or tell them about it -stopped in 1973 only after its existence was publicized in the paper -president Clinton apologized in 1997 5. CIA funded LSD studies on psychiatric patients at McGill 6. Halushka v. U. of Saskatchewan -students paid 50$ to participate in a anesthetic drug trial -told a catheter would be inserted into his left arm -not told that the catheter would be advanced into his heart -suffered cardiac arrest, residual injuries -court: duty owed by researchers is “at least as great as it not greater then, the duty owed by the ordinary physician or surgeon” -U. of Sask. Held liable -few Canadian cases on research ethics 7. CIA funded LSD experiments in Montreal (1950’s & 60’s) Humphrey’s Tearoom Tr
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