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SOAN Intro Meth Week 1 Lec 2.docx

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

SOAN*2120 – Week 1 LEC 2 Wednesday, January 9, 2013 COMMON ERRORS OF HUMAN INQUIRY AND POSSIBLE SAFEGUARDS 1. Inaccurate observation i.e. correlation does not equal causation 2. Overgeneralization Inhibits making detailed observations 3. Selective Observation We tend to observe certain things more than we would otherwise; we are making observations of the thing that fits the pattern we’re trying to prove but we ignore other details that may disprove it 4. Illogical Reasoning Reaching a conclusion through means that are not always possible i.e. Gambler’s Fallacy: when you have a long stroke of bad luck and you assume that you’re bound to get a winning streak soon } the reality is that each time you play, it’s the same probability! Needleman Case: - There is a link between lead and intelligence in children—he just didn’t report it properly and he assumed that correlation = causation, which is inaccurate - If the authority refers to evidence, we expect to see the data in order to make our own judgements - We must observe an evidence-based process TAKING SOMETHING ON FAITH - Church of Galileo’s day Geocentric Model (Sun moves around the Earth) However, the truth is that it follows the Copernican Model/Heliocentric Model (Earth + planets move around the Sun) - Ptolemy resurrected the Geocentric Model Problems with explaining retrograde motion Ellipses and difference: main orbit was the “difference” and the smaller movements were ellipses Premium model/prime mover They explained and predicted the entire motions of the solar system; it gave an idea of how nature functioned through this model - Galileo Published Dialogue on the T
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