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Lecture 2

SOAN_2120 - Week 2 LEC 1.docx

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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

SOAN Week 2-Lecture 4 POSITIVISM -Assumes a sharp distinction between theory and research  Element of both deduction and induction  From senses (sight and hearing) can be accepted as knowledge  There’s something there that we can actually measure, look at, then understand what’s going on INTERPRETIVISM  Subjective meaning of the people’s actions  Criticizes to positivism; typically done by positivists  Looking at things going on and your interpreting them, as opposed to something there that you can measure WHERE DO RESEARCH IDEAS COME FROM?  Theory  Life experience Other sources  Personal interests and curiosity  Casual observation  Practical problems or questions  Vague and fleeting thoughts  Reading reports of other’s observations FINDING AND USING BACKGROUND LITERATURE  Primary sources Firsthand reports of observations or research results that are written by the individuals who actually conducted the research and made the observations  Secondary sources Are a description or summary of another person’s work. A secondary source is written by someone who did not participate in the research or observations being discussed SOCIAL SCIENTISTS  Qualitative social scientist -Lengthy field study -Intensive case analysis Usually one or smaller phenomena’s in great detail. Something complete in all aspects -In-depth interviews  Quantitative social scientist -Identify various hypotheses -(Test hypotheses) -Generalizations -A lot of observations around a small number of tests, lots of cases in smaller detail EVIDENCE  Quantitative evidence -Objective -Verifiable -Controlled observations -Precise communication  Qualitative evidence -Explanations and descriptions -Painstaking analysis of documents -Lengthy participation in a group THEORY CONSTRUCTION  DEDUCTIVE -Specify topic -Specify range -Identify concepts/variables -Find known relationships -Reason logically -Find subject, give limits of that description  INDUCTIVE -Build theories based on observing aspects of social life and then seeking to discover patterns PARADIGMS  Fundamental frames of reference used to organize observations  Underlie different sets of theories and explanations  Collections of theories which share common underlying assumptions, values
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