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SOAN 2120 (390)
Scott Schau (113)

Lecture Jan9-13

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

Needlemanlead poisoning in childrenlower intelligence Lead and IntelligenceThe Needleman Case yo 1975collected teeth from 3329 first and secondgrade children o 270 of the most likely subjects o 58 high lead children o 100 low lead childrenThere are 112 students missing from the studywhy yaccused him of cherry picking his data y Brought up on academic misconduct bc of this yo Was eventually absolved but was stated that he made these changes to get published o Later published a correction to include all data As researchers we should doubt our own findings and that of other researchers even if it is published adversarial processpostures skepticism How do we know what we knowDirect Knowledge ExperiencesyObservationsare not always accurate has some subjectivityy Indirect KnowledgeTraditionpassed on through social accumulationpro not a lot you can experience directlycon ylimit inquiryprejudice and closing your mind to other options if you dont question may continue to hold mistaken knowledgeAuthorityheld by someone with some expertisewatch for irrelevant status look for the ycredentials educations experience in the fieldCommon errors of Human Inquiry and Possible SafeguardsInaccurate observationsy o To prevent rereview the scene data OvergeneralizationySelective observationignoring data that doesnt fit the theoryy o Find cases that dont fit the pattern you are looking for creating greater accuracy by making sure your theory is correct or by causing an alteration to the theoryIllogical reasoningy Do not trust indirect knowledgequestion what you are told Assertion Authority and Evidence claims about causationy o Eg lead exposure causes reduced intelligence o Accept RejectNeed supporty
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