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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
John Walsh

SOAN 212009012012 Lead and intelligenceThe Needlemen case was a 1975 study of the effect of lead on children In 1975 stndthey collected 3 329 teeth of 1 and 2 gradersThey used 270 of the teeththose teeth were from the most likely subjects same economic background same kind of environment 58 high lead children and 100 low lead children158 does not add up to 270theres was over 100 teeth missing and there was no explanation of why they were missing He was cherry picking his data to favour his studyHe was brought up on charges of academic misconduct He was asked for help he did not volunteer so he needed to make sure the paper was sufficient To make it credible To make it credible they do peer review but there are some limitations to peer review Consumers of research dont need to believe everything they read Being sceptical is good Richard Feynman says that you need to criticize your own researchSOAN 2120 11012012Direct KnowledgeIndirect knowledgeExperienceTraditionObservationAuthority Gained through observation Consensus of reality such as science or art and our own senses touch BUTProcess of learning what others believeobservations does not always reflect Consensus does not necessarily reflect an objective reality Like a def person realitywouldnt know a fly buzzes They wouldknow it by sight more then by soundPros Many things you cannot experience directly like something that is poisonous You dont have to try it to find out the harm that it can do to your body Sometimes you have to trust peoples knowledgeCons Indirect knowledge limits peoples inquiry Just because someone says its the truth it doesnt mean it is It can lead to prejudice close mindedness If we dont question traditional knowledge we never change Authority Status CredentialsLike Jenny McCarthy who thinks that drugs cause autism People believe her because shes a celebrity and she has status Trusted people like doctors scientist and people with their Phd They make mistakes misuse their authority The knowledge they have in their field is not necessarily interchangeable with another field
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