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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2400
D Rose

Week Lecture 1 & 2 9/6/2013 8:56:00 AM Classical Theory: th Friday, September 6 , 2013 1. INTRODUCTION Theoretical concepts have a role in: Shaping the direction of research Directing observation Guiding description Comte: came up with the term (LOGY: study a high level, SOCIO: points to society) Social Philosophy is much older than sociology, came up in ancient Greece, blossomed during the enlightenment. Social philosophers study what ought to be where as sociologists study what is Sociologists are often interested in reoccurring pattern; similar to historians they look at past events but keep an eye out for patterns Historically, Sociological Classical theory written between the time of the great French Revolution 1789-1799 and WW1 (1919) Monday, September 9 , 2013 2. THE VALUE OF THEORY: THE CONTEMPORARY RELEVANCE OF OLD THEORY theories are explanations – models, social theories suggest causes Identification of causes are the heart of theories. „Models‟ are approximations of how society works. Models are theories when we choose to see society in a particular way (i.e. society can be seen as a complex computer system used as a means of communication). theories are road maps (Hurst) Hurst said theories are like road maps allowing us to explore reality and understand its terrain. This is limiting in the way that some readers/road maps are better than others. Different perspectives see it differently. Applying different theoretical orientations will get different results. different sociological perspectives see problems in unique ways „The Sociological Imagination‟ – social science should aim at helping people understand their “private troubles” in terms of “public issues” (C. Wright Mills, early to mid 1900‟s • Mills argues – adequate social science should have practical importance for the average citizen Mills: social science should allow us to solve our own personal issues. Social science theories should have practical importance for everyday people. What could be so practical about looking at these older theorists? 1) All living in societies undergoing wide ranging social changes 2) Each concerned with the character and direction of modern society e.g. division of labor, bureaucracy, alienation, class struggle (these all examined these in different ways) 3) All were involved in the societies of their time Marx – newspaper, he believed the division of labor wasn‟t just, some have more opportunities than others Weber – political activities Durkhiem – socially involved, he thought the division of labor was just Simmel – love, conflict, life
 (We won‟t be discussing him in the course), he reached out to non academic audiences Harriet Martineau – women‟s issues Large frameworks for sociology: Functional Conflict Interpretive: how people view or measure society and the meaning attached to them The Women Founders of the Social Sciences by Lynn McDonald (1996) Women: Women: did not have the institutions to support them that men did, excluded from universities, no schools promote their work, few biographies Wednesday, September 11, 2013 3. THE NATURE AND TYPES OF SOCIOLOGICAL THOUGHT: POSITIVISM, INTERPRETIVE, CRITICAL Did not have the institutions men have had to support each other’s work excluded from universities
 no schools to promote their work
 few biographies Positivism is nomothetic – it seeks generalizable, universally applicable laws prediction and control logic of explanation – ability to predict environments Interpretive Theory – study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social worlds (hermeneutical theorists) human communication symbols are learned relies on qualitative data Critical Theory – focus on the need for social change 
 • the concept of authority and power relations and power dynamics between individuals in society Didn’t become a part of human understanding until the enlightenment. It develops an understanding of how dominance is institutionalized in society. Practical Application of Positivism and Critical Approach 
 • positivist uses scientific method to study factory labourers • critical theorist looks at conditions of labour – is it just? th Social Philosophy was originally more descriptive, but once on the 18 century they realized it wasn’t solving problems and they then turned to science. 4. EXPANSION ON THEORTECTICAL FRAMEWORKS KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY Positivism requires a commitment to determinism empiricism determinism – cause and effect relations - Empiricism (experience in greek) empirical knowledge about the external world is grounded in what we learn from our sense perceptions - Still, the meaning of such info has to be interpreted Positivism and Empiricism is not the same. You can still be empirical and still hold a different perspective. Empiricism refers to the attempt at explanation of social phenomena, the search of regularities and, as much as possible, the search for casual relations that determine them. determinism – cause-effect relations empiricism (empeiria – Greek for experience) empirical knowledge about the external world is grounded in what we learn from our sense perceptions still, the meaning of such info has to be interpreted empiricism refers to the attempt at explanation of social phenomena, the search for regularities and, as much as possible, the search for causal relations that determine them (McDonald, Women Founders, p.19) • probability Objectivity is never fully achieved because we can‟t know everything, and there are so many perspectives in some way there will be bias and influence objectivity is a goal – never fully achieved subjective views guide the choice of research questions, but we must be objective when looking at the data. Every attempt at objectively is us trying to put our own beliefs away. Positivistic analysis contains several levels of description, including: 1) Abstract theory: theories which are specifically looking at patterns and relationships between variables i.e. playing violent video games (because of these games, we are not more aggressive or supportive of violence but desensitized). 2) Particular concepts: isolating important variables 3) Operational definitions: to do with measurement, i.e. how we decide to measure violence or any abstract comment 4) Description of sense impressions
 some argue all positivists , in a sense, are hermeneutists too (interpretive theory). The positivists have to learn to interpret. Critical Evaluation of Positivism – particularly by critical theorists critical theorists – prefer to focus on human activity, they critique positivism, positivism lose the people themselves and only pay attention to the numbers. They condemn positivism for being passive and losing the idea that actors are critical. Habarmas – positivism loses sight of the actors it is inherently conservative, incapable of challenging the existing system critics ask: How can we assume that society has a “natural” order? Limitations of Positivism 1) human behaviour is too complex for prediction, to allow sociologists to predict humans precisely (it‟s cant be the done). The best sociologists can do is find a pattern 2) humans respond to their surroundings, they react to being studied (the Hawthorne Effect) 3) social patterns change constantly, human behavior is too variable to set down laws 4) being value free can be difficult Critical Evaluation of Empiricism Macdonald‟s book: Especially feminists and environmentalists have attacked “conventional” social science They uses a lot of social surveys in the 1970‟s and around there empiricism came around and it was attacked by feminists because it was very much about sexist bias. There was always a high value to male data Sexist bias, Women Founders p.4 Interest in variables – implied forgetting about real human beings Academic literature in the 1970‟s and 80‟s were filled with prejudice and bias Lynn McDonald argues that there is a large sum of women who contributed to social science, yet were still able to use empiricism Defense of Empiricism Some feminists (advocates of sexual equality) were also empiricists We need to return to the social sciences to search for explanations – for causes and effects in a real social world (McDonald) Results of empirical research can be profoundly critical of the existing social arrangements, it used to be people responding to studies in a negative way, but now we see empiricism, no matter what kind of theorists you are can aid you in a very positive way Social sciences cannot be value-free – values will always shape the choice of what is studied and how Still - objectivity Empiricism and Equality Rights
 • Research provides examples of actual empirical work: hypothesis development, data collection and interpretation Interpretive Theory – the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world Value orientation and social context Use of symbols, what are their uses, what do they mean Major presuppositions of interpretive theory: No such thing as sociological law, sociological variables are always brought in and defined by language 1) Sociological variables are defined by means of human language 2) Human action becomes meaningful in terms of social rules 3) Human practice/activity Weber felt that sociologists had advantages over natural scientists ability to understand social phenomena
 ‟Verstehen‟ – a technique aimed at understanding culture Critical Evaluation of Interpretive Theory 1) Mainstream interpretive has given up on scientific techniques 2) Tend to downplay or even ignore large-scale social structures - Focusing more on the micro approach it doesn‟t look at the large-scale social structures Practical Application of Interpretive Theory Technology and cybernetic information: Interpretive theory and communication – is it liberating or isolating? How do we “read” each other? Within our increasing dependence we‟ve allowed ourselves to explore interests, but at the same time we‟re limiting ourselves and allowing others into our personal information Chat rooms allow us to share problems, many platforms of expression for like minded individuals Computer‟s are what Marx would say provides liberating qualities On the other hand, how isolating do we find this? How do these mediums change the structure of our social relationships Critical Theory 
 The study of society that focuses on the need for social change... Ask moral and political questions
 For Marx the point is not to study the world as it is, but to change it (not to philosophize but to change it) Critical sociology is okay with value, and assigning values to what we‟re interpreting and analyzing Seek to change not only society, but the character of research itself Exploitation or injustice Conflict/critical encourages us to reflect on our actions and social institutions We can understand how reality is socially constructed through our language Understand the way reality is socially constructed
 People are not always aware of the rules by which they live
 Analyzes how particular ideas help to sustain authority relations that are inherently unjust or repressive Critical Evaluation of Critical Theory Scientific sociologists claim that critical sociology is political and gives up any claim to objectivity, because it is so political, it gives up claim to objectivity Sociologists argue this statement with the belief that all research should be political, we choose sides, we either look for change or do not Technology example – the creation of markets for the expansion of the world wide web -Greater resources of some Technology can free us or enslave us Theoretical (Methodological) Frameworks Related to Theoretical Paradigm The scientific approach linked to structural-functional paradigm The interpretive approach linked to the symbolic-interaction paradigm Critical approach linked to social conflict paradigm Marx and Weber traditions are usually seen as opponents Conflict tradition They focus more on the disharmonious elements of society, it concentrates on society as an arena of inequality Focuses on domination and culture whether or not overt outbreaks of conflict are taking place, it examines not only war and large issues but it also examines how submissive or dominant groups within society work Developed theories of capitalism, social stratification, political conflict Focus on the disharmonious component of society Social class, race, ethnicity, sex and age are linked to unequal distribution of money, power, education and social prestige Feminism Micro level – interaction, body of language between genders Macro level – constraints and forms of resistance in women‟s lives within the institutional realms, such as politics, economics, schooling, religion, the family Feminist theory aims to describe the point of view of women Women formed consciousness-raising groups, got together and discussed sexual abuse, control or reproductive organs, and after-math of voting. They believed women‟s oppression could be overcome through a societal change Liberal Feminist: democracy, equality of opportunities Socialist “: Oppression through gender, class, sexual orientation, contrary to capitalism that focuses on individual success and struggle Radical Feminists: reproductive issues Structural Functional Paradigm 
 • Views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability Harmonious Evolutionist or organic manner Social rituals Symbolic Interactionism Everyday interactions of individuals A micro-level orientation The use of signs and symbols Meaning of actions Looking at how we get along, influence institutions, how parties react to social gatherings * Gave out assignments th Friday, September 19 , 2013 Video Clip: Being in the World Plato: truth, how we understand and recognize things only to the extent to which we understand what they are- things are, what they are when they‟re extracted from all their details Descartes: „I am a thinking thing”- a thinking thing has a mind, thus ideas. Heidegger: action (look into it more) similar to Marx, and action Week 3 Lecture Sept 23 /13rd HOBBES (compared to Rousseau), LOCKE AND ASTELL - I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AROUND THE TIME OF HOBBES: RENAISSANCE TO BAROQUE - II HOBBES (COMPARED TO ROUSSEAU) (1588 – 1679) - III THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION - IV LOCKE – LIFE AND IDEAS (1632 – 1704) - V ASTELL – LIFE AND IDEAS (1668 – 1731) I : HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AROUND THE TIME OF HOBBES: RENAISSANCE TO BAROQUE - 17th Century philosophers - rationalism - empiricism Rationalism – sees knowledge existing independently of physical reality Empiricism – sees knowledge as based on observable, physical reality - During Descartes time, the 17hcentury philosophers were in a debate of being against knowing (rationalism and empiricism) • during and after the 17th Century empiricists Francis Bacon and John Locke were rejecting the old magical ideas and arguing that physical reality works according to mechanical principles- by studying things empirically these philosophers believed they could figure everything out, there was cultural progress A few notes on Middle Ages first - in monasteries, the copying of old manuscripts by hand: digests of Plato, Aristotle etc. was transcribed in these monasteries by these monks - the Church‟s authority was supreme, despite these digests from largely known philosophers - more time – intellectual interests: people in the church began to integrate the ideas of other philosophers - medieval philosophy – the joining of faith with reason: it was very much an intellectual period, as thinking become more self reflective, reason became the tool in debate - Philosophy as the handmaid of theology; reason was subordinate to faith - tension between reason and faith was now heightened - by 12th century books by Plato are available and philosophical battle is waged - religious authority – faith alone vs. religious philosophers, interested in teaching of Greek 
 philosophers - 1340‟s there were many crisis‟ for Vienna, crop failures, etc - 1348 – the Bubonic Plague (Black Death). Small outbreaks of Plague until 1600‟s wiped out more 
 than half of the urban population, killed about 30- 60 percent of the European population. Wages increased due to lack of workers and historians see this as a large change for European history - The fear of death, and the desire to enjoy life was intensified during this period due to Black Death Seen as a sign of divine wrath, warning of a sinful humanity -- or -- - fear of death intensified the desire to enjoy life - a springboard for economic growth „Dangerous Beauty‟ movie clip - based on a true story of a women who chose the life of a prostitute, instead of not marrying him she was assigned to - courtesans were allowed to access libraries unlike any other woman, and this found herself incredibly intelligent and powerful - in Venice at the time, the women were covered in black, ignored and ignorant - tried as a witch as scapegoat to blame of the Black Plague I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AROUND THE TIME OF HOBBES a) magnetic compass – greatly impelled intellectual innovation
 b) gunpowder – contributed to the demise of the old feudal order c) mechanical clock – became the paradigm of modern machines
 the printing press – allowed the dissemination of new and revolutionary ideas throughout Europe: this separated and freed humans from the clock of nature - Hans Holbein The Ambassadors (1533) – exchange of ideas and exploration: important painting of the 1500‟s that displayed many cultural items that were apparent during this time: uniting exploration and the church: a large skewed skull plays with optics, uncertainty, time, illusion - inventions were powerfully modernizing and ultimately secularizing in their effects: Hobbes believes that we live out of fear and must find some sort of power that will keep us safe - overthrow of medieval feudal structures
 - the printing press allowed the growth of individualism, people could write and print their own works - silent reading helped free individual from collective control of thinking
 - new era‟s emerging science; shaping the modern view
 - now individual ability and deliberate political action and thought carried the most weight individual man as adventurer, genius and rebel After the 15th and 16th century the centre of the universe is no longer European - a sense of Relativism - Protestant Reformation – 1517 – Martin Luther – condemning abuses of the church and sparked a popular revolt: soon joined by rules that saw the pope as a rival - focused on the relationship of the individual believer to God 
 - 15h century saw the spread of literacy and coral between the pope and monarchy (Hobbes Times) Baroque Period: pertaining to art and thought in Europe - style of music composition Baroque architecture 1550 – 1700
 Baroque music 1600 – 1750 Baroque style expresses spirit of the counterreformation 
 Around 1600 – 1625, the Catholic Church had survived the rise (it had regained much of its former territory) of Protestantism – now in the midst of an expansion The Roman Catholic Revival – (historians call the Counter reformation) was given added purpose and vigor by a remarkable group of artistic visionaries - this new style, Baroque, reflected the optimism of the church - fascination at this time with light/dark movement, time and space - explosion of knowledge transferred to artists – sought new ways of seeing and understanding 
 Baroque Video Clip: - Caravaggio, first artistic bohemian - people could see themselves in these religious paintings - Protestants suggested a more direct relationship with God, where the Catholics were against it Caravaggio – realism and naturalism – a new and radical kind of art - Depicted ordinary people – religious themes - attitude shared by certain saints of the Counterreformation – faith as inward experience open to all 
 people - appealed to Protestants and Catholics 
 Baroque style of architecture – roots in counterreformation Rome 
 Monarch‟s of the 17th century Europe – their power increasingly challenged by far reaching social and economic change – sought to present themselves as the heirs of the Roman Emperors 
 Kings required of their court painters that their images should convey a sense of their dignity, wealth, and divine right to rule II HOBBES (COMPARED TO ROUSSEAU) 1588-1679 Hobbes (1588-1679)
 • without a strong ruler human society is big and monstrous
 - Hobbes: we need to be loyal to our ruler despite how good of a ruler he actually is - the natural state is when man is in war with another man, because we will always desire the same thing - men then live in a continual state of fear and danger, lacking culture - their lives are brutish and short - Hobbes argues that all human desires are connected and we all must keep moving to stay alive - passion, hope, appetite and fear - human life is a constant struggle to deal with our desire Rousseau (1712-1778)
 • find a social order whose laws were in greatest harmony with the fundamental laws of nature - versatile and influential of modern thinkers, pioneer of romanticism, time of the enlightenment - this mounting corruption went hand in hand with the progress of arts and sciences - though primitive man were naturally good and free, present society has made us immoral, have made us sad - In a natural state we Rousseau - Natural Man (hypothetical construct) is “peaceful” Social Man is “warlike”
 War is a social institution – man learns to attack - Man makes war a member of an organized community – his own community against another. “He becomes a warrior only after he becomes a citizen.” - Conditions that make society, and eventual warlike state:
 division of labour, social inequality, cultivation of plants, domestication of animals, class & wealth status emerge - Haves and Have nots Laws - Government develops to protect property of rich Individuals were forced to unite in society. - Individuals did not unite because they wanted to come together out of fear as Hobbes said - Inheritance – so man who began independent and free becomes the tool and victim of another. “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains” - This new society or social contract enables the individuals to be absorbed into the common “general will” without losing his own will - Social contract allows individuals to be absorbed into common general will - division of labor and agriculture revolution occur and inequality comes to be, because some have more than others: social violence is born out of this development of human society - government is created to protect the rich - men‟s freedom is always the goal, but an unattainable state - forced to unite due to the division of labor, rather than Hobbes idea of being united by fear: Rousseau counters Hobbes - “Man is born free, and everyone in chains” Hobbes - The Leviathan: his book, large sea monster- society is monstrous without a leader - Natural man is “warlike” – every man against man - Social man is “peaceful” - We desire power - We desire things we can‟t have - Struggle War Scarcity - Every man against man - Men live in fear - Life of man is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” - Society possible due to “common power to fear” - Men form social contract & subordinate themselves to a sovereign authority guaranteeing them protection from force and fraud - Social man is peaceful due to social contract - you can‟t have a democracy with no force - government is a constant threat to our freedom but it is indispensible - (Dangerous Beauty film clip) Week 4 Lecture Sept 30/13 III THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Hobbes: Thinking machines – in relation to Scientific Revolution - all thoughts and sensations in the mind are produced mechanically by the senses and the brain - still, early scientists didn‟t think a strong ruler was the solution, but early scientists thought science 
 and rational mind would come to the rescue - they used science as a way to work out problems and disagreements - experimenting with the natural world – scientific experiments mathematical principles - Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes and Newton - orderly system of mechanics - optical physics 
 - We are naturally prone to fight without a strong leader - Everything could be explained in terms of motion th - before the 17 century no one knew how to use math or science 17th century rationalism and empiricism - laws – new science 
 The Scientific Revolution was both the expression of The Renaissance and its definitive contribution to the modern world view: - empiricists were beginning to reject old magical ideas, everything works on mechanical principles - Copernicus (1473 – 1543) – planetary movements – mathematical formula - Galileo (1540 – 1650) – astronomy - Newton (1642 – 1727) – establishing gravity as a universal force - astronomy and science – descriptions of the past to the explanations of the future - no longer was direct observation mixed up with science due to these men - science proves that we were not the center of the universe IV JOHN LOCKE (1632 – 1704) – British Empiricism LIFE AND IDEAS Philosophers began to think that maybe science could be used to shed new light on moral philosophy – scientific techniques could be used to explain how we think, how we understand and how we should live in society 
 • empirical philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries were British Locke: his ideas were not original, but came from centuries of political experience within the common enterprises of the middle classes - anointed the father of the enlightened period - his writings allowed people to escape from their religious traditions Observant Brits:
 - Sir Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) – learning new knowledge based on observation
 - Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) – mechanical principles
 - Sir Robert Boyle (1627 – 1692) – invented the barometer
 - John Locke (1632 – 1704) – human understanding in empirical terms, arguing that there are no innate ideas, natural rights: empiricism is not just how we think but how we all learn, it is the basis of everything we know. The knowledge we get from experience is the most reliable- there are no innate ideas - Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) – physics – formulas for matter and motion, calculus, optics - David Hume (1711 – 1776) – human nature – limitation of scientific reasoning
 - Empiricism – for Locke, the basis for how all people learn everything they know - all knowledge comes from observation and experience - senses and the mind work together to turn experience into understanding - started to note mortality statistics – only social data published “Two Treatises of Government”
 “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” • develops a few propositions with arguments based on observation Method – “historical”
 - “Your mind was a blank” – tabula rasa - experience and observation are like the chalk that writes knowledge on your blank slate - revised the older Aristotelian idea - we know of things only because our perceptions produce sensations of things from which we form 
 ideas - what we know is limited to our experience 
 - Locke was more neutral than Hobbes in comparison- Locke‟s views went against the views of the church which stated that ideas were innate - he thought automatically the brain reasoned, knowledge comes from our ability to reason - provided this entire empirical/scientific source of knowledge- knowledge is arrived from sense experience - didn‟t believe the brain was merely a repository of knowledge - the source, is always the experience- these experiences aren‟t identical with knowledge (knowledge comes about through our ability to reason) - all creatures are open to feeling and sensations but only humans connect these impressions and create knowledge through reason - our ignorance is greater than knowledge, we are limited - no ideas are innate - we can thus think and act through our reason, we can shape the world into what we desire- revolutionary concept Lock(e) out Divine Right - in place of the divine rights of kings Locke proposed a government based on reason and natural rights 
 Back to Nature - for Locke, nature is a much nicer place than it is for Hobbes - people have the right to make free choices – to live without being injured by others and to own 
 My Work – My Stuff - connection between labour and the right of ownership helped promote capitalism - capitalism gradually replaced feudalism in Europe - feudalism violated people‟s natural right to own property 
 - we do have natural rights without any form of government, people have the right to make free choices and to live without being hurt by others, and have the right to own property (also own the crops which they‟ve produced it themselves” - bring up labour and capitalism - as the earth was given to human kind to enjoy, they‟re allowed to convert it to personal property- whomever takes more than they need should be allowed to be shared (you‟re invading your neighbor‟s space) Locke‟s Social Contract - because everyone has natural rights, government should be a matter of - - - mutual consent among everyone involved...a social contract
 the poor do not share in Locke‟s democratic rights. Neither do women. Locke: humans were not free, they had to act accordingly to reason- he was entirely opposed to Hobbes Leviathan and the idea that one monarchy should be in control to what is reasonable. - preservation of their property - a monarch is party too, and not above the social contract Key points of Hobbes, Locke, Roussau: - Hobbes: short brutish life, leviathan - Locke: society requires a social contract for natural lives and consent, people are naturally greedy and want more, people need to come together to be governed - Rousseau: natural man is peaceful but we come together for social contracts because the division of labour brings out inequality, similar to Locke in the way that we need to protect one another. We unite because we want to go with the majority. Opposes Hobbes that we come together out of fear 18 minute clip documentary: The Examined Life (all relates to Locke) 2 opposing theories of knowledge: - rationalists - empiricists 30 minute documentary on Social Contract Week 5: Lecture Notes Oct 7/13 V ASTELL – LIFE AND IDEAS (1668 – 1731) Background and Publications - first English, Christian feminist - contribution to methodology - shared conservative politics of the established church – the divine right of the sovereign to rule „Serious Proposal for the Ladies‟: Part 1 1694, Part 2 1697
 „Some Reflections upon Marriage‟ (1700), based on an actual case: based on a real case about the legal possibilities of women demonstrating the legal disabilities of women • fierce opposition to Locke‟s liberal politics - established in Chelsea with wealthy aristocratic women - she believes women should have education, and emphasized women‟s equality in her religious foundations - general equality of people (education and morality) - the soul was created for the contemplation of truth Methodology - though interested in empirical ideas, but accepted the idea we may have limited place for innate ideas - Cartesian terminology: has to do with theology, defining knowledge in terms of “clear and distinct” ideas - having ideas of your own wasn‟t an accepted idea of the time, she believed in seeing and judging through our own perception and opinion - despite this, very few things can be seen through sense perception and it may be prone to error - considerable scope for “opinion,” believed there was room opinion within the mix of social sciences - influenced by friends, greed and ambition - ignorance cant be avoided but error can be - weighing and comparing evidence - she warned of the possibilities of error in sense perception - “Ignorance then can‟t be avoided but Error may...” - many truths which humans cannot comprehend through science (i.e. music, love) - 3 modes of thinking: faith, science and opinion – each with its own limits - skeptical of the reliability of the senses; and of reason - contrary to idealists, she held that there are many truths our minds cannot comprehend - - used the plural for understanding(s) and mind(s) - “Good sense was not the birthright of all – though more are born to, than make use of it.” - our unruly passions stops us from analyzing something intelligently - we must govern our passions, both body and mind could make error - we need to “distinguish between evidence and probability, reality and appearances” (Women 
 Founders, p.45) - make our “animal spirits” more calm and manageable “- our unruly passions” keep us from observing - exercise Cartesian doubt – not to take bare words on trust, “but to see with his „own‟ eyes and to 
 judge according to his „own‟ understanding” - women should have a life of mind against the conventional wisdom  Truth was external – our ideas are false, she claims, when they have no conformity to the real nature of the thing (her terminology was less sexist for back in the day which we find interesting- though „mankind‟ appears, she uses person more so than these writers) Set out 6 rules to help women use their minds properly: 1) acquaint ourselves with the question thoroughly 2) cut off all needless ideas 3) conduct our thoughts by order 4) not to leave any part of our subject unexamined 5) always keep our subject directly in our eye 6) to judge no further than
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