Community and Development
January 14, 2014
Group work assignment
Community development: try to critique what has been explained in the case studies.
You will use inductive reasoning to explain what is explained in the theory.
Individual assignment: will be critiquing the community development practices
What did you like about the paper and did not.
Find other information to prove a point or disapprove the point
What is power?
ability to affect change good or bad
status differences – sources of power
influence/ ability or capacity to influence
access to resources
Who are powerful/powerless?
ascribed status (born)
Having more followers
Communication or access to information you have more power
What is empowerment?
self motivation and self action: ability to be dependent
Power: power properly understood is nothing but the ability to achieve purpose (e.g.,
economic, social and political purpose)… power without love is reckless and abusive,
and love without power is sentimental and anemic. (ex. Parenting, professor whom want
their students to succeed)
Facets of Power
Personal power – a drive to experience oneself as a cause, to interact effectively with the
institutional environment (experience of having power!)
Interpersonal power – influence on others decision making
making a differences on other peoples life Political power – bring some changes in social structure
ability to change things that working in your community and country
coercive power – use of physical force
utilitarian power – spare a lot of money
the power that comes from wealth
using money influence situations
symbolic power – control of media/ strategic information
the ability to influence people by communication and education
Power over A traditional dominance model where decision making is characterized by
control, instrumentalism and self –interest
Power to represent forms of resistance that community development practitioners map
use to try to counter a dominance model of power
Power with – and empowerment model where dialogue inclusive, negotiation, and shared
power guide decisionmaking.
working collectively to influence those who are powerless
Carrot and stick two ways influence decisionmaking
“ Whenever your are in doubt, apply the following test: recall the face of the poorest and
weakest person you may have seen and ask yourself if the step you contemplate is going
to be of any use to (empower) them.” Mahatma Gandhi
“Empowerment involves a form of critical education that encourages people to question
their reality: this is this basis of collective action and is built on principles of participator
democracy.” (Ledwith, 2011:2)
Empowerment is a process of social transformation through which we gain control of our
lives (Ledwith, 2011:2)
Pedagogy of the oppressed
Paulo Freire’s “Pedagogy of the oppressed”.
The book is about pedagogy of the oppressed and the mutual process of liberation and
Antonio Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks. This books about hegemony, the power of dominant idea to infiltrate our thoughts as
common sense when the make no sense at all.
Critical education to raise critical consciousness.
Age sensitive of teaching/ learning
Able to use: link to life
Know what they want to learn
Want to apply learning to life/work
Dependent and guided by adult
Limited life experience
Curriculum is set
Learning for the futre
The process of social transformation contains two phases or stages:
1. A first stage where you unveil the world of oppression, become aware and commit
yourself to transformation. Critical knowledge and practice.
2. A second stage where the world has been transformed and where pedagogy for
and with all people are used in an ongoing process with liberation.
Best practice Community Development?
best practice social work
pluralistic agenda, top down intervention
consensus model, working with like minded individuals and organizations.
Communities are small homogenous units with shared norms and values
transformational community work
radical agenda, bottomup empowerment
conflict model, overcoming differences through dialectical deliberation, work
through these differences using dialect devices