Socializaion: the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potenial and learn culture. Personality: a person"s fairly consistent paterns of thinking, feeling, and acing. The biological sciences: the role of nature; iniially, europeans linked cultural diferences to biology. The social sciences: the role of nurture; behaviourism holds that behaviour is not insincive but learned. Isolaion (being cut of from the social world) can cause permanent developmental damage. Six researchers have made lasing contribuions to our understanding of human development: Basic human needs: eros and thanatos as opposing forces. Id and superego are in constant states of conlict, with the ego balancing the two. Preoperaional stage: use of language and other symbols. Concrete operaional stage: percepion of causal connecions in surroundings. Difered from freud, viewing the mind as acive and creaive. Cogniive stages are the result of biological maturaion and social experience. Moral reasoning: the ways in which individuals judge situaions as right or wrong.