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Chapter 11 Notes

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SOC 1500
Mavis Morton

Chapter 11 Violent Crime The Roots of Violence  There are a number of competing explanations for violent behaviour - Personal traits (neurological impairments, learning disabilities, psychosis, illogical thinking, low intelligence) - Inneffective families (ineffective, abusive or inadequate parenting) - Substance abuse (influences violence through the effects of drugs, the need to obtain drugs, and relation to drug trafficking) - Human instincts (Freud believed it was some humans have the instinct that drives them into self destruction) - Regional values (different values and views on violence in different regions) - Cultural Values (Subcultures of violence- violence as a way to solve conflicts - and gangs) - Firearm Availability BRUTILIZATION PROCESS is the first stage in a violent career during which parents victimize children, causing them to develop a belligerent, angry demeanor PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL is the effect of a mood altering substance such as alcohol, PCP, or amphetamines in producing a change in behaviour that can be violent CRIME RELATED VIOLENCE is when violence is committed during the course of another crime, usually between strangers EXPRESSIVE VIOLENCE is violence that is designed not for profit but to vent anger or frustration; also called conflict-related violence CONFLICT-RELATED VIOLENCE is an expressive crime of passion involving acquaintances, with factors (eg. drug use) that inhibit rational evaluation of the consequences of an immediate violent act Sexual Assault  Criminologists consider rape to be a violent, coercive act of aggression, and the term has been changed to sexual assault  In early civilizations, rape was common – males staked ownership on women by forcibly raping them  There were significant allegations of rape within the military  Sexual assault has a low report rate  Population density influences the rape rate – metropolitan vs. rural areas GENDERED VIOLENCE is the concept that some forms of violence tend to be committed against women, by men, e.g. sexual assault, stalking, domestic violence  Groth states that rape contains three elements: anger, power and sexuality  Rapes are divided into two categories: stranger rapes, and acquaintance rapes  Women are less likely to report crimes involving acquaintances  There are a few explanations for the cause of rape: - Evolutionary/Biological Factors (sexually aggressive males) - Male Socialization (boys are taught to be aggressive, separate sexual feelings from love and affection) - Psychological Views (mental disorders or personality disorders) - Social Learning (pornographic films, media) - Sexual Motivation Murder  There are different degrees of murder MURDER colloquially refers to the killing of one person by another: homicide is separated into the categories of first and second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide PREMEDITATION is in the case of first-degree murder, that prosecution must prove that the offence was thought out and planned  Second-degree murder requires that actor to have malice but not premeditation  Voluntary manslaughter refers to a killing committed in the heat of passion  Involuntary manslaughter refers to a killing that occurs when a person’s acts are negligent and without regard for the harm that they cause others  Most stranger killings occur during the commission of another crime THRILL KILLINGS is impulsive violence motivated by the killer’s decision to kill a stranger as an act of daring or recklessness GANG KILLINGS are for example, when teenage gangs make violence part of their group activity, engaging in warfare
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