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SOC 1500 Week 8

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Categories of crime 1. ‘Street’ crime (conventional) a. Offenders-committed by the common/individual person i. Lower classes more likely ii. Most common: property, violence b. Responsibility- on individual level. We can point to specific person who is responsible for the crime. They are easily identifiable c. 2 categories: i. Violent- homicide, assault, robbery ii. Property- breaking enter, vandalism, theft d. Criminal Justice System 2. ‘White-collar Crime’ a. Offenders- middle and upper classes b. Occupation-prestigious occupation (working at a bank, president of company) c. 2 categories i. White-collar- individual ii. Corporate- organization responsible (not following procedures, someone dies at work) d. Criminal Justice System i. Fired Violent Crime Categories  Assault (level 1) most common minor assault 60%  Assault (level 2 and 3) presence of a weapon/aggravated assault  Robbery (can only happen in presence of a victim)  Sexual Assault (level 1 most common) Homicide-death of a human being that was a result of something not natural/other than nature Murder: First degree: 5%-15% of murders 1. Planned/deliberate 2. Officers if you kill police officer, prison personal while on duty=first degree murder 3. Common of crime- kill someone in commission of another crime (most common)kidnap someone and they die a. Sentencelife in prison without possibility of parole until 25 years. If labeled dangerous offender, you can be in prison forever Second degree:  Defined murder that is not first degree o Crown attorney cant prove that it was deliberate/planned or police officer was not on duty Soc 1500 WEEK 8 o Burden of proof on Crown of Attorney  Proportion o 20%-30% of homicides  Sentence o 25 years with life in prison eligibility of parole happens in sentencing Manslaughter: happens in heat of passion  Defined o Has to be immediate find spouse in bed with another person, can’t leave the scene and come back  Other criteria o Homicides that occur accidently  Ex. Someone dying during assault o Did not intend for someone to die  Proportion o 42%-65% of homicide o Most common o Most occur when offender or victim has been intoxicated (alcohol or drugs)  Sentence o 25 years but rare for manslaughter case to get 25 years because intent didn’t mean to kill someone o Average: 8-15 years Infanticide: less than 5%  Mother & child o When female by willful act causes act of newly born child (under age of 1) o Seen as a result of affects of giving birth o Could be a biological reason, hormones, chemical imbalance o Common: teenager hides pregnancy and then kills baby  Proportion o Not common  Sentence o Psychiatric supervision o Depends on circumstances on homicide o Only women can be charged Statistics (rate)  Standardize o Rate of crime  Rate: per 100 000 population  Calculated: o # homicides/population X 100 000 Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Canadian Homicide Rates  Every 100 000, 2 people will be killed  1961-2010 (peak in 1975 highest rate of homicide) Homicide Statistics By Province:  Pattern o Low on east coast, and increases from east west  Prairies have highest rates of homicides (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta)  Highest o Prairie o Alberta (3.64 people)  Territories o Don’t look at territories because highly variable o Not a lot of people live there o One murder can change the rate dramatically Major Metropolitan Regions  Thunder bay had highest homicide rate in Canada  Before that, Edmonton had highest rate Homicide by Methods Methods common looking at adult homicide rates  Shooting (illegally obtained hand guns)  Stabbing Characteristics  Ethnicity o Measure aboriginal vs. non-aboriginal o Interracial crime (crime against the same race)  Sex o Offenders & victims  Males account for greatest number of offenders and victims  9 males: 1 females offender  3 males: 2 females victims  Age o Offenders & victims  Most likely age to kill or be killed is 18-24 (8.8 rate) Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Young Offenders (12-17)  Proportion of all homicides o 7-10 percent of all homicides o Media is more likely to sensationalize them Canada (patterns)  Lone offender –victim o More likely to kill alone o One offender and one victim  In contrast in America, like to kill in groups and kill more than one person  Victims o American kids are more likely to kill their friends and acquaintances o Canadian kids are more likely to kill parents or family members  Method o Most common method is shooting (American & Canadian kids) Adult Homicide: Relationship & Location  Relationship o Known vs. strangers  Intimate: someone you have a close relationship to (spouse, lover, ex spouse, ex lover)  most common  Friends acquaintances  Coworkers  Stranger (least common) 5% of cases  Males more likely to be killed by strangers  Females more likely to be killed by spouse  Location o Most common  In own home o Second common  Public place (bars, restaurant, friends home) o Third common  At work Motivations for killing:  Passion o Argument, jealousy, act of despair  Financial gain o Someone owes you something and they don’t want to pay it  No motive  Unknown & solved o Canada 75-80% of homicides are solved  Drugs & Alcohol o At least half of victim or offender to have taken drugs and/or alcohol o Most common for accused to have taken it Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Serial Killing  Definition o A series of 3 homicides by an individual or couple that spans over weeks, months or years o 35 serial killers are active in any given year in United States  First (modern) serial killer o England (Jack the Ripper)  5 or 6 victims  All were prostitutes  Never caught or specified who he was  Got a lot of attention: movies o USA (Ed Gein)  Cannibalism  Victims: women with high status  Silence of the lambs, Texas chainsaw massacre  Spectacle o What they are doing is for someone else to view and study o There is something a part of the killing that is meant to be seen by other people o Most serial killers found in industrialized world (united states) Generic Stereotype  Physical characteristics o White male o 20’s and 30’s o Assumption that if you are a serial killer you are ugly, can’t be trusted  However, most serial killers are attractive, look like other people, are not different  Social characteristics o Extremely charming  Stop/interruption in killings o Continue to kill o Common reasons for to stop o Usually in prison for unrelated charge o Sometimes they die Victims  All female o Ted bundy, paul bernardo  All male o Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy  Both (rare)  Carol Bundy & Doug Clark Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Apprehension of Serial Killer  Difficult o Hard to apprehend serial killers because victims are usually strangers no connection between offender and victim o Luck police officer stops them for other reasons and then see they have something they shouldn’t o Planning a lot of planning goes into serial killing. When it’s planned, you can clean things up, not leave clues behind, make more difficult to be investigated  Police Investigations o Probabilities  Who is most likely to kill the victim Typologies of male serial killers  Visionary o Psychological  Mental illness: hear voices  Chosen by whoever  Mission-oriented o Groups  Targets specific group of persons to make the world a better place (ex. Prostitutes)  Hedonistic o Lust and thrill  Get pleasure out of terrorizing their victim  Sexual desire  Power-control o Exert total control over life or death of victim o Sometimes kill victims and bring them back and kill them again o More joy in controlling when they will die  Comfort o Monetary reasons  Professional killers  High counts  Kill to make money  Extremely organized  Less likely to be caught  Disciple o Leader  Trying to kill someone for a leader Soc 1500 WEEK 8 Female serial killers: more difficult to apprehend  Question of sanity o Psychological  Mental health issues  Could be temporary after giving birth or permanent  Black Widow o Fam
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