Social exclusion: being shut out from any of the social, economic, political, or cultural systems that determine the social integration of a person in society (walker and walker) Multi-dimensional construct: poverty, gender, race, and sexual orientation. Homeless youth: often leads to crime, those who feel the most excluded are at the greatest risk for committing crime. Examples: women go to prostitution because of being sexually abused as a child, drug dealers: parents were drug addicts or alcoholics. Gaetz and o"grady: homeless youth are involved in many moneymaking activities. Youth with the most troubled backgrounds and facing bad situations are most likely to make money by engaging in risky or illegal activities. Youth gangs: a group of individuals with identifiable leadership claiming control over territory and engaging with individually or collectively in violent or other forms (miller) Black in toronto, asian or south asian in vancouver, aboriginal in prairies.