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SOC 1500 (763)

Week 8 - Crime & Criminal Justice-1.docx

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

-Street crime: Conventional crime -Committed by the common person (individual) -Lower class more likely to be arrested in a street crime -Responsibility is on an individual level -You can point to specific people who are responsible -Equally identifiable -There are 2 categories: Violent and property crimes -Violent is committed against the person -Property is committed against property -Criminal justice system mostly deals with street crimes -While-collar crime: Corporate crime, political crime, government crime. -Offenders from middle and upper class -Tied to a patient typically and prestigious occupation -2 categories: Individual and corporate -Criminal justice system rarely deal with these types of crimes -There is low enforcement -Dealt with internally or civil court -Street crime statistics -It is the UCR -More than 50% reported to police in 2011 with property related offences -Most are theft under 5000 dollars -2 highest is violent and accounts for about 20% of street crimes -Fed statutes is drug related offences, and accounted for 6% -Traffic violations such as impaired driving and traffic related offences considered crimes -Other offences are administration offences (Prostitution, etc.). -Most serious violent crime is thought to be homicide -Assault level 1 is the highest (minor fighting) -2 most common is assault level 2 (threat to use a weapon, etc.) rd -3 is assault level 3 (aggravated) -Robbery is a violent crime in Canada because it can only happen in the presence of a victim -In the US, it is a property crime because the intention is to get property or money. -Sexual assault level 1 is the most common of the 3 -Homicide is the death of a human being that was the result of something not natural. -Something other than the victim and nature. -4 categories of homicide in Canada: st -Murder (1 degree): It is planned and deliberate (most serious) -If you kill a police officer while on duty, it is 1 degree murder st -Also 1 degree if you kill someone in the commission of another crime -The latter is the most common of 1 degree murder -They account between 5 and 15% of homicides -Very few are planned and deliberate -It is normally life sentence with the chance for parole (not before 25 years) nd st -2 degree murder is murder that is not 1 degree -Any murder that is not 1 degree murder is considered 2 degreend st -When they might not meet criteria for 1 degree murder -The burden of proof is on the crown attorney -It accounts between 20 to 30% of homicides -Sentence is 25 years with the chance for parole normally after about 15 years (before 25) -If eligible for parole, it is normally during the sentencing -Other homicide is manslaughter -Murder that occurs in the heat of passion -The reaction has to be immediate -Homicides that occur accidentally fall into the category of manslaughter -There was no intention, it just happened -Accounts between 40 to 60 percent of homicides -Most manslaughter occurs when the offender or victim has been intoxicated -They either consumed drugs or alcohol -Maximum sentence is 25 years but it is very rare in a manslaughter case -Assumption is made that It was accidental or in the heat of the moment -The average is 8 to 15 year sentence -Infanticide is when the mother caused the death of a newly born child -The child has to be under the age of 1 -It is seen as a result of effects of giving birth -Could be related to a biological reason -It could also be become somebody does not want the child -It is normally when the teen hides the pregnancy and then kills the child -Less than 5% of these account for homicide -The sentence is usually psychiatric supervision -Only women can be charged with this -When taking about statistics, we are talking about rates -It is normally per 100,000 people in the population -Calculated by: number of homicides/population x 100,000 -The rate in Canada is approximately 2, while the US has over 5 -Canadian homicide rates peak is in 1995 and been declining and stable since 2000 -By province, historically it is low on the east coast and increases from east to west -Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta have the highest homicide rates -As moving towards the west, the homicide rate increases -In Ontario, 1 ½ people are killed per 100,000 -Manitoba has the highest homicide rates -In territories, 1 homicide can affect rates in territories drastically -This is because there are very few people who live there nd -Thunder bay has the highest homicide rate in all of Canada for the 2 year in a row -Before that, it was Edmonton -Rate in Toronto is fairly low compared to other metropolitan regions -Homicide by methods -This is looking at adults -In Canada, we go back and forth between shooting and stabbing -in 2009, more were stabbed, some were shot -Today, the most common way to shoot is hand gun -It used to be a rifle -About 65% of firearm related homicides are done with a handgun -Those handguns are obtained illegally. -Characteristics of homicides: -It is the only crime in Canada where we collect information on ethnicity -It is aboriginal vs. non-aboriginal -In the US, they collect it on all ethnicities on all offenders -It is an interracial crime and will happen between those of the same race -Male account for the greatest amount of offences and victims -For every 9 male offenders, there is 1 female -The age group likely to kill or be killed is 18 to 24 -8.8 vs. 1.8 is the rate for 18 to 24 vs. other age groups -More likely to be killed if under the age of 35 -News is more likely to report when white females are victims of homicides -But they are not most likely to be victims of those crimes -Young offenders (12-17) -If between age of 12-17, you are a young offender -They account between 7 to 10 percent of all homicides -Canadian kids are more likely to kill alone (80% for juveniles is 1 offender and 1 victim) -In contract to American, they like to kill in groups and like to kill more than 1 person -In the US, American kids are more likely to kill friends -In Canada, kids are more likely to kill their parents or family members -The most common method every year is shooting, for both Canadian and American -It does not fluctuate much over time for juveniles compared to adults -Adult homicide -Likely to be killed by somebody known to you (spouse, etc.) -Next most likely is a friend rd -3 is co-workers -4 is strangers -Strangers account between 5 to 10% -Males are more likely to be killed by strangers -Females are more likely to be killed by a spouse -Most common location to be killed is in their own home -It is normally where homicide occurs -If likely to be killed by a spouse or loved one, It is likely to happen at home nd -2 most likely is a public place (friends home, bar, etc.) -3 most likely is at work -Most common motivation is passion -Not a surprise since most homicides are manslaughter -2 most common reason is financial gain or settle account -Between 5 and 10%, there is no motive or was not established -A motive is not required in Canada to prove a homicide has taken place -About 75-80% of homicides are solved -For other crimes, it is about 39% -Drugs and alcohol play an important role -About half of homicides is when the victim/offender has taken drugs or alcohol -Serial killing commonly believed is a series of 3 homicides than can span over a certain period of time -In Canada, you only need 3 homicides to be considered to be a serial killer -In the US, it is 5 people -The first modern serial killer was Jack the Ripper in the UK -He had 5 or 6 victims -All of them were prostitutes -He has garnered a lot of interest in movies -In the US, first known was Ed Gein -He was involved in cannibalism -His victims were women with high status -Psycho, Texas Chainsaw Massacre, etc. all focus on him -They do things in return of a spectacle for other people to view -Physical characteristics is that they are mostly males -They are white and Caucasian -They are typically in their 20’s and 30’s when active in their killing -Physically, the assumption is that if you are a serial killer, you are unattractive or ugly. -However, most serial killers are attractive and look like other people -Socially, they are extremely charming -Typically, serial killers continue to kill -If there is a stop in the killing, there are specific reasons for that -It is when they are in prison or moved (mostly) -They normally target specific victims -It could be all female victims (Ted Bundy) -It could be all male victims (Jeffrey Dahmer) -Some rare cases, serial killers target both (Carol Bundy, Doug Clark) -Apprehending a serial killer can be very difficult -The victims they target are normally strangers -The have no connection between the offender and victim -Harder for police to
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