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Lecture 8

SOC 1500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Sexual Assault, Dangerous Offender, Homicide

Course Code
SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

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Lecture # 8 Tuesday, October 30, 2012
Categories of Crime
1. “Street crime: (conventional)
- Offenders inability to get counseled
- Responsibility point to specific person responsible for crime, identifiable
- 2 categories
o Violent any crime committed again person, homicide, assault
o Property crime crime against property break and entre
- Criminal justice system
2. ‘Whit collar crime’ corporate crime
- Offenders from middle and upper classes
- Occupation tied to a persons occupation, prestigious occupation
- 2 categories
o White collar individuals certain
o Cooperate organization is responsible
- Criminal justice system rarely deal with white collar crime, low enforcement,
dealt with internally or in civil court (lawsuits against the cooperation)
Street Crime (2011)
- Property 53%
- Violence 19%
- Other CC 15%
- Traffic CC 7%
- Fed Statutes 6%
Violent Crime Categories
- Assault (level 1) 61.1% (minor assault)
- Assualt (level 2 and 3) 16.3% (assault with weapon; aggravated assault)
- Robbery 9.1% (consider a violent crime in Canada because it can only happen
in the presence of a victim)
- Sexual assault (level 1,2,3) 7.8% (
- Other assaults 4.3 %
- Other sexual offences 0.9 %
- Homicide/attempted murder 0.4% (death of a human that is the result of
something not natural;
- Abductions 0.2%
- First degree
o Planned or deliberate
o Officers while they are on duty
o Commission of crime killing someone while committing another crime
ex kidnap someone and they die;

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Sentence life in prison without possibility of parole up to 25
years; labeled as a dangerous offender you can be held in prison
indefinably ex. Paul Bernardo
- Second degree
o Defined (Criminal Code) any murder that is not first degree
o Proportion 20 to 30% of homicides
o Sentence 25 years in jail with the possibility of parole at 15 year mark
or sooner
- Manslaughter
o Defined (immediate) Homicide that occurs in the heat of passion or
sudden provocation
o Other criteria didn’t intend for anyone to die; accidental murder
o Proportion 40 to 60% of homicides
o Sentence max sentence is 25 years but this is rare because didn’t
intend on killing someone; average to serve in 8 to 15 years
- Infanticide
o Mother & child when mother causes the death of a newly born child
under the age of 1; caused by results or effects or giving birth; may occur
because of hormones or chemical imbalance
o Proportion less than 5%
o Sentence psychiatric supervision
Statistics (rate)
- Standardized
- Rate: per 100,000 population measured the same in other cities and countries
so can be compared
- Calculated: (# homicides / population) X100,000 (in Canada 2 people in 100,00
will be killed in the USA its 5
Homicides Statistics
By province:
- Pattern lowest on east coast which increases as you travel left
- Highest in prairies, Manitoba
- Territories least likely place from homicide because very few people live
Characteristics of Homicide
- Ethnicity only crime that we collect info about ethnicity
o Measure aboriginal vs non-aboriginal
- Sex
o Offenders & victim being you male you are more likely to kill someone
but more likely to be killed as well
- Age
o Offenders & victim most victims are between 18 to 24 and more likely
to be killed if under the age of 35

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Young Offenders (12-17)
- proportion of all homicide account for 7 to 10 % of all homicides but media is
more likely to sensationalize them
Canada (patterns)
- lone offender-victim most kids are likely to kill alone and only kill one person
in Canada but in American kids like to kill in groups and kill more then one
person at once
- Alone
- Victims USA more likely to kill friends and acquaintances but Canadian kids
are more likely to kill parents or family members
- Method most popular is shooting among both USA and Canada
Adult Homicide: relationship & location
- Relationship
o Known vs. strangers more likely to be killed by someone you love or
once loved one, then by your friends or acquaintances, then co-workers
and least likely by strangers
Strangers account for 5 to 10 % in commission with another crime
Males are more likely to be killed by a stranger but females are
more likely to be killed by a spouse
- Location
o Most common in their own home not in a dark alley way ; home is
usually where you feel most comfortable with a loved one
o Second public place or other private place (bar, restaurant, friends
o Third at work
- Passion related to jealously act of despair
- Financial gain or to settle account
- No motive 5 to 10 %
- Unknown & solved 75 to 80% in 2009 are solved while most others crimes
that get solved are only 35%
- Drugs & alcohol victim and offender have consumed one of both in most cases
with offender typically having more
Serial Killing
- Definition not used until the 80s; commonly believed that it is a series of 3
homicides by an individual or couple that spans over 3 weeks to months (5
homcides in USA require to be considered serial killer)
- First (modern) serial killer
o England (Jack the ripper) 5 to 6 victims and was never caught; many
movies have been made about him
o USA (Ed Gein) catabolism, mutilation, victims = woman with high
status; movies based on him; silence of the lambs
- Spectacle do things in terms of a spectacle; do things for someone else to view
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