Class Notes (834,976)
Canada (508,836)
Sociology (2,978)
SOC 1500 (763)
Ryan Broll (194)
Lecture 5

SOC 1500 Lecture 5: SOC 1500 Lecture 5 + Ch. 3 Txtbook Notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 1500
Ryan Broll

SOC Lecture 5 Explaining Crime: Historical Perspectives Thesis Refresher: - The central idea to which all of the essay’s paragraphs, statements and information relate - Thesis sentence: narrows your topic to single idea, asserts something about your topic, provides a concise overview of how you will arrange your ideas - Preventing youth crime example thesis: youth can be diverted from crime by active learning programs, full-time sports, and intervention by mentors and role models - When writing and revising your thesis: does it make an assertion, convey your purpose, and is the sentence unified - The Demonic Era (before mid 1600’s): “criminal” behaviour was thought to be caused by demons or evil spirits; strongly based on religion i.e. early modern witch trials. Trepanation was used to allow spirits to be released so the soul could return to normal Magna Carta: agreed upon in 1215, established basic civil liberties, important historical document because it’s the foundation of modern English laws and procedures; person could not be imprisoned or extradited unless they were judged to be guilty of an offence Enlightenment Era (late 1600’s- early 1700’s): significant intellectual shift in Western Europe; judicial systems were based upon ideas of certain philosophers - Religious dogma and superstitious beliefs were replaced with a belief in the scientific method and rational thought - Human activity determined by free will and rational thought, not spirits - Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote his famous book Leviathan (1651): fear of violent death forces human beings into a social contract with each other that led to formation of the State - In natural state, humans are, “nasty, brutish, and short” - Social Contract: we all give up some freedoms to the state in return for protection - Hobbes believed it was unnatural for humans to put themselves under the control of the State, it is rational for people to do so - Egoism is the cause of all social conflict - John Locke (1632-1704) challenged conventional wisdom of the time by believing that natural human condition was that you’re born as a blank slate upon which human experience molded your personality (nurture not nature) - Free will and rational thought were deemed the basis of human activity and social organization - Catholic church still currently practices exorcisms for dealing with certain types of deviant behaviour Classical School of Criminology: - Cesare Beccaria (1764)” Essay in Crime and Punishment” where he argued that punishment should be formulated for the purpose of deterrence; further offending would not be committed due to punishment associated - Based on moral philosophy and not subject to systematic empirical observation or testing - Punishment should fit the crime; progressive thoughts (American Constitution, penal codes of France, etc.) - Criminals are free-willed decision makers who choose to commit crimes, yet can be deterred by punishment - Jeremy Bentham (An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation) judges should not have the power to exercise complete discretion in passing a sentence th - In 18 century Europe, punishments for committing crimes were undertaken in an arbitrary and barbarous fashion - Classical School of Reformist Thought also influenced the development of the asylum which was slightly more humane way to treat the mentally ill - Utilitarian analysis does not pay heed to the possibility that psychological, biological, or sociological factors could play a role in explaining criminal behaviour - Neoclassicism takes into consideration these factors i.e. children or mentally unstable Lombrosian Atavism to Modern Biocriminology: - New perspective conceived human behaviour to be determined by forces beyond the co
More Less

Related notes for SOC 1500

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.