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SOC 1500 Sept 22 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Alexander Shvarts

SOC 1500 Thursday, September 22, 2011 LECTURE 2: VICTIMOLOGY Schmalleger & Volk: Ch. 4, Hackler Ch. 12 The Role of Victims • North American crime policies: focused on criminal > need to arrest more people, put more people in jail • Victim-oriented legislation and services: focus on victims of crime > focus more on helping victims of crime (ex. women as victims of sexual assault, children as victims of abuse) • Victim programs: (1) compensation programs > if you are victim of a household victimization – compensate what you were ro, (2) victim-witness programs > encourage victims of crime to report and be wit, (3) individual and group counseling > especially for the victims of sexual assault, sp, and (4) shelters for victims of domestic violence > women are not reporting; provide protection; place to go when victimized; support system Reporting Crime • Victims may not use services available to assist them because they often do not report crimes > not being used enough; services are of no use to women who are abused within the home and do not report; have to take action and report before you can use these services • Non-reporting: most common for victims of rape or sexual assault > over 40% of women do not report Victim Participation in Court Proceedings and Parole Hearings • In many jurisdictions, victims may influence punishment either at sentencing or at parole hearings > want victims to participate in influencing punishment; influence decision the judge be lenient)e criminal(how long the sentence should be, should they be given parole, should The Nature of Victim Services in Canada • Victim service agencies: vast majority of clients are female • Agencies provide the following services: general information, emotional support, liaising with other agencies on behalf of the client, providing information on court processing and the criminal justice system, immediate safety planning > ex. restraining o, and court accompaniment Defensible Space and Routine Activities • Newman: Citizens involved in crime prevention through the construction of residential complexes that deter crime by creating defensible space > best way to reduce crime – build residential areas boxed in so everyone can see what is going on > --- • Surveillance and informal control by residents > you are controlling crime in your neighborhood • Criticism Lifestyle/Exposure and Routine Activities Approach • Shift in lifestyle in North America and Europe after the Second World War: new opportunities for theft > property crime increased, violent crime increased • Hindelang: lifestyle/exposure theory > lifestyle you lead makes you more exposed to crime • Cohen and Felson’s Routine Activities approach – 3 factors increase victimization: (1) suitable targets > if there is a motivated offender, suitable target (unguarded) crime is more likely to occur (ex. motivated offender: male, suitable target: female) (2) capable guardians (3) motivated offenders • Examples: (1) Banks > more likely to be robbed in the past (less security); not much money in the bank anymore (2) Homes > more burglary in past due to less surveillance (no alarm systems) OR in the past, not so much to steal; more to steal now; faster to do it; homes more likely to be left unattended (3) Youths > youths more likely to attend in crime now than in past; more accessible; more likely to be on their own to commit crime (parents not watching over them); bad in terms of employment – stealing more because less assess to jobs, paying less (4) Car theft Lifestyle/Exposure and Routine Activities Approach • Kennedy and
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