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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1500
Professor
Michelle Dumas
Semester
Fall

Description
Course Topics 1. What is crime and how much crime? 2. Crime and representation (media/pop culture) 3. Criminological theories 4. Selective issues, violent crime, youth, corporate crime, national security 5. Criminal Justice system's response to crime Divisions of Law Substantive: rights and obligations. i.e. criminal law states what types of conduct are prohibited. Procedural: sets out the methods to enforce these rights and duties i.e. contains rules for enforcing criminal law e.g. rules police must follow when making an arrest. Criminal law: comes into existence when the state declares itself to be the injured party for certain types of infractions (Linden, 2004:21). Crime: “an intentional act or omission in violation of the criminal law, committed without defense or justification and sanctioned by the state…” (Tappan 1966:10) Basic Elements to a crime Actus Reus: “guilty act” or physical element (or omission) Mens Rea: “guilty mind” or intention Fagan v. Commissioner of Metropolitan Police (1969) 1 Q.B. 439n  Officer tells Fagan to pull over and park at a certain spot on the curb, he accidently stopped on officer Morriss' foot.  The officer yelled at Fagan to get off his foot and Fagan told him to "Fuck off and he can wait". He turned off the ignition and waited for a bit. Eventually he reversed off the officers' foot  Fagan was found guilty of assault and found guilty when he appealed it  Initially the Actus Reus occurred and the Mens Rea was not there.  When he turned off the ignition and waited there and his words showed the Intention was formed thus providing the Mens Rea.  Lesson learned: Understand the larger picture of the truth and don’t fuck with cops Issues Issues: “Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his individual life. They have to do with the organization of many such mileux into the institutions of an historical society of a whole ...” (Mills, 1959:8). Private trouble vs. Public Issues  Public issues are social problems.  A way of looking at the world that can see links between the apparently private problems of the individual and important social issues.  Historical, contemporary global, and societal factors are responsible for the presence of public issues (social problems) in societies like ours.  The causes of social problems are social not individual.  Big Picture Small World (coda) Social Problems: “a condition that harms a significant number of people or results in the structural disadvantage of particular segments in any given society” (Dolgan, 2011:3). Troubles: occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others; they have to do with his self and those limited areas of social life ...” (Mills, 1959:8). Perspective  A lot of effort is required to clearly understand someone else's perspective. Sociological Imagination  Sociologist C. Wright Mills says to analyze the intersection of the personal and social = the social Imagination. Understand society with a grasp of the interplay of social structure and individuals (1959:11)  "Seeing the general in the particular" (Berger, 1963). Troubles  'Troubles, occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others; they have to do with his self and those limited areas od social life …" (Millsm 1959) Issues  "Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his life . They have too do with the organization of many such mileux into the institutions of an historical society of a whole …" (Mills, 1959:8) Critical Reflection  Reflection is 'looking back on experiences; Critical reflection is the Intentional process of analysing , reconsidering and questioning experiences within a broader context of issues.  Critical reflection occurs when we analyze and challenge the validity of our presuppositions and assess the appropriateness of our knowledge, understanding and beliefs given our present contexts (Mezirow, 1990). Brookfield (1990) explains that critical reflection involves three phases:  Identifying the assumptions (“those taken-for-granted ideas, commonsense beliefs, and self- evident rules of thumb” (pg. 177)) that underlie our thoughts and actions;  Assessing and scrutinizing the validity of these assumptions in terms of how they relate to our ‘real-life’ experiences and our present context(s);  Transforming these assumptions to become more inclusive and integrative, and use this newly- formed knowledge to more appropriately inform our future actions and practices. Troubles vs. Issues (Answering in a non politically correct matter, typical uniformed answers)  Over-representation of aboriginal people in Canadian prison? A: Aboriginals are all drunks and drug addicts. Not mentioning how the years of torment and being torn from their lands  A women assaulted by her husband? A: The husband is a sick SOB no other explanation or the women provoked the assault and stays in the abusive relationship.  Gay teen commits suicide. A: The worst thing to be called for a guy is to be called a girl, he is a fagget and provoked being bullied.  Child abuse? A: The kid was a little shit, was a brat and deserved to be hit  Welfare fraud? A: The people are lazy and don’t want to work and are stupid. Not that they cant live on the low assistance allowance Public Confidence in Criminal Justice in Canada  Public confidence is important for the functioning of the justice system: -Reporting -Participation (complainants, witnesses, jurors) important for effective prosecution of accused -Promotes sense of belonging and cohesion Relevant Arguments  Perception Media driven  The mission of the criminal justice system is not primarily to help crime victims but rather to promote public safety and impose appropriate punishments  Judges must discharge multiple mandates, one of which is ensuring defendants receive a fair trial Conclusions  A higher % of the public is satisfied than dissatisfied with the justice system  A significant plurality of the public is dissatisfied with the practice of the system or what they perceive the system to be doing.  The public has less confidence in the justice system than other systems (Ex. Health)  The ultimate question is what should be done about a justice system that fails to inspire confidence or that has elements in which the public have little confidence  The answer to low levels of public confidence lies in addressing the gap in public knowledge of the justice system Counting Crime  How much Crime in Canada  Are crime rates increasing or decreasing  Where and when is crime most likely to occur  What are the factors which influence trends in crime rates  Who commits crime?  What causes people to commit crimes? What do crime stats measure?  "Crime statistics do not measure criminal behaviour, they measure the response of various agencies to their perception of crime" (Hackler, 2000, 47). "...You are counting something about how the system itself operates; you are counting official  decisions about crimes and criminals Crime Rates Crime rates are calculated by dividing the Number of times a particular event occurs in a certain Time Period, by the population size for a particular Geographical area, and multiplying by a constant (usually 100,000) Crude crime rate = number of events x 100,000 population size Factors which may influence changes in the crime rate? 1. Crime rates are Report-sensitive 2. Crime rates are Policing-sensitive 3. Crime rates are Definition-sensitive 4. Crime rates are Media-sensitive 5. The crime rate may really be changing Where do official crime stats come from?  Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (1981)  Funded by Statistics Canada, Dept. of Justice and federal Solicitor General of Canada  Surveys: o UCR & UCRII o Homicide o Prosecutions o Legal Aid o Adult Court o Youth Court Methods for counting crime  Official Records  Police Stats: Uniform Crime Report (UCR-1961 & UCR2- 1990), Crime Severity Index  Judicial Stats: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) – Juristat (e.g Adult Criminal Court Survey)  Correctional Stats: CSC, Dept. of Justice (e.g. Adult Correctional Services Survey)  Self-Report Crime Surveys  Self-Report Victimization Surveys Observational Accounts Canadian Uniform Crime Reports  Main survey on crime in Canada – volume.  Covers crime and traffic statistics reported by all police agencies across Canada. 100 separate criminal offences.  UCR survey data reflect reported crime that has been substantiated through police investigation. The survey collects the number of criminal incidents and number of persons charged. UCR2 mid 1980s  Collects more detailed information on each incident, victims and accused persons.  age, sex, accused-victim relationship, level of injury, weapon causing injury, location, property type damaged or stolen, date and time.  "incident-based" respondent reporting system. Canadian Uniform Crime Reports Limitations:  UCR includes only crimes reported to police.  Changing definitions of crime.  Police use different reporting procedures.  Less serious offences under-counted.  Police discretion.  Not everyone charged is guilty. Crime Severity Index  New tool for measuring police-reported crime in Canada that is designed to measure the change in overall seriousness of crime from one year to the next and difference across Canada Self Report Crime Surveys  Ex. Canadian General Social Survey (GSS)  EX. Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUS)  Measures nature and extent of crime that may or not have been reported to police  Anonymous questionnaires asking respondents about offences they have committed  Demographic info I.e age, gender Self Reports- Limitations and Benefits  Reliability, accuracy, truthfulness  More information about a person  Examine crime by age, race, class, gender, and so on, and evaluating findings against official arrest stats  More law abiding people are more likely to report more serious and frequent infractions Victimization Surveys  E.g. Canadian Urban Victimization Survey (now part of GSS)  Victimization experiences of individuals sampled at household via the phone. Demographic info i.e. age, gender, martial status, # of children GSS- Victimization Survey  Every 5 yrs. self-reported victimization data collected from a nationally representative sample of Canadians, aged 15 years or older, for 8 offence types:  sexual assault,  robbery, 3. assault, 4. break and enter, 5. theft of personal property, 6. theft of household property, 7. motor vehicle/parts theft, and 8. vandalism. Observational Accounts  E.g. Ps, squeegee kids, participant observation (I.e Research on gangs squeegee kids, prostitutes, police etc)  Researcher interacting with a group while observing their behaviour Limitations/Benefits  Validity- observing first hand events in natural setting  Hard to make inferences/generalizations in a larger population  Deals with smaller groups Crime Rate may REALLY be changing!  During the 1990s crime rates steadily declined in Canada stabilizing in early 2000s  The crime rate dropped in 2010, down 5%. Overall crime rate was 17% lower than a decade ago Crime Rate and Crime severity down  The Police-reported crime rate, which measures the overall volume of crime, continued its long-term downward trend in 2010, declining 5% from 2009. At the same time, the Crime Severity Index, which measures the severity of crime, fell 6%. "A New Look at the Gender Gap in Offending"  Has the gender gap in violent offending changed over time?  Has the gender gap in violent offending changed over time once offender race and age are accounted for? Gender Gap in Offending  Gender gap in offending - women commit few and less serious crimes than men  Gender convergence - gender gap narrows  Gender Divergence - gender gap widens  Gender Stability - gender cap remains unchanged Justice Statistics by Race  Racial minorities over-represented in official crime and justice statistics in all western nations -Tend to occupy social positions that put them at greater risk for offending and victimization -Unequal treatment by police and courts  Against  Accuracy  Further disadvantage marginalized groups  Justify increased policing of minority areas  Conceptual difficulties – race as a category  For  Determine if allegations of discrimination are valid.  Whether criminal justice policy impact minority groups differently – bring evidence to public attention.  Development of criminal justice policy.  Challenge or invalidate biological theories & stereotypical explanations of crime. Geographical measure of crime  Location quotient - measures crime specialization -Studies show that there is more crime in Western Canada and less in Eastern Canada, more crime when you head west?  Ratio of the % of a type of crime in a province/territory to the % of that crime in all of Canada  Studies show that there is more crime in Western Canada and less in Eastern Canada, more crime when you head west? Location Quotient (LQ)  If LQ = 1 region has proportional share of a particular crime.  If LQ >1 region has disproportionately large share of a particular crime  If LQ <1 disproportionately small share of a particular crime Provincial Specialization  Motor Vehicle theft over represented in Quebec, Manitoba and Alberta  Sexual assault 20% higher in the Atlantic provinces and Quebec than in Canada as a whole  Drugs over-represented in B.C and Quebec Problems with the crime rate calculation  Crime rate calculations problematic in regions that have populations less than 100,000  E.G. Nunavut (pop = 30,782) had 2 homicides in 2006 therefore homicide rate 6.5 per 100,000 5 Key Concepts to Media Literacy  All media messages are "constructed"  Each medium has different characteristics, strengths and a unique "language" of construction 3. Different people interpret the same media message in different ways 4. Media message are produced for particular purposes, including profit, persuasion, education, and artistic expression 5. Media have embedded values and points of view  Context, consequence, meaning Myth of the Liberal Media- The Propaganda Model of News  Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky have developed a comprehensive framework for understanding how the news is produced and in whose interests it works. In this video, they demolish one of the central tenets of our political culture: the idea of the liberal media. Media Project Causes of Crime?  Individuals- who causes it, victimization Media tools/strategies  Emotive language- News media's coverage of crime and its consequence  Overdramatize crime -Crime waves/moral panics -Over-reporting violent crime ("If it bleeds, it leads) -Neglecting white collar crimes  Crime myths -Racial and ethnic minorities (Gender, class, age,) Ex. Victimization (Young, white female or Elderly white female) -More evidence if you are black and young, you will be represented in a negative stake as an offender -Youth -Virtuous crimes (Barkan, 2006)  Other Problems -Value laden language -Failing to provide social/historical context -Misleading information (Ex. Saying the crime rate is increasing without stating the crime rate) News Structures and Values  Threshold (Perceived important in order to make news, drama associated)  Predictability (Bizarre, rare, extra ordinary)  Simplification (News simplify stories to bare minimum) 4. Individualism (relating news to people) 5. Risk (increases awareness of crime, 6. Sex (Sex sells, over report of sexual crime) 7. Celebrity (tax fraud, disorderly conduct) 8. Proximity (Spatial and cultural news relates to us) 9. Violence/conflict (Violence sells, scares people) 10. Graphic imagery (visual and pictures are very attention grasping) 11. Children (crime related to children evokes pity, fear for our children, children innocent) 12. Conservative ideology (supporting and reinforcing deterrence, agenda, more police, more prisons,) Race and Crime in Popular films  Crash, Best Picture 2005 -Blind Fear Myth of the Liberal Media- The Propaganda Model of News  Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky have developed a comprehensive framework for understanding how the news is produced and in whose interests it works. In this video, they demolish one of the central tenets of our political culture: the idea of the liberal media. Media Project Causes of Crime?  Individuals- who causes it, victimization Media tools/strategies  Emotive language- News media's coverage of crime and its consequence  Overdramatize crime -Crime waves/moral panics -Over-reporting violent crime ("If it bleeds, it leads) -Neglecting white collar crimes  Crime myths -Racial and ethnic minorities (Gender, class, age,) Ex. Victimization (Young, white female or Elderly white female) -More evidence if you are black and young, you will be represented in a negative stake as an offender -Youth -Virtuous crimes (Barkan, 2006)  Other Problems -Value laden language -Failing to provide social/historical context -Misleading information (Ex. Saying the crime rate is increasing without stating the crime rate) News Structures and Values  Threshold (Perceived important in order to make news, drama associated)  Predictability (Bizarre, rare, extra ordinary) 3. Simplification (News simplify stories to bare minimum) 4. Individualism (relating news to people) 5. Risk (increases awareness of crime, 6. Sex (Sex sells, over report of sexual crime) 7. Celebrity (tax fraud, disorderly conduct) 8. Proximity (Spatial and cultural news relates to us) 9. Violence/conflict (Violence sells, scares people) 10. Graphic imagery (visual and pictures are very attention grasping) 11. Children (crime related to children evokes pity, fear for our children, children innocent) 12. Conservative ideology (supporting and reinforcing deterrence, agenda, more police, more prisons,) Race and Crime in Popular films  Crash, Best Picture 2005 -Blind Fear Fear of Crime  In what ways does media's representation of crime impact your attitudes/bahaviour January 31 Lecture on the Media Assignment Expected Learning Outcomes  Employ critical reflection skills to identify and evaluate assumptions that inform our understanding of crime, criminal behaviour, and crime control policies  Make connections between theories of crime, criminal justice policy, and its implementations  Create and express relevant sociological connections between course readings, lectures, music, other course material, the criminal justice system, community action and your world  Demonstrate initiative, independence, personal and social responsibility, respect, academic integrity and accountability. Steps Towards completing CEL  Step 1  Research a local or national organization/committee/group without contacting them directly whose mandate or focus of activities is related to the prevention of crime, or assists, informs, educates victims, offenders and/or the public about crime or the Canadian criminal justice system  Step 2  Think about a way you can make a contribution to a community organization and write up a 1 paragraph description of what you intend to do, how and when. Make sure this paragraph addresses the way in which it connects to the course and makes a contribution. Post this to the dropbox and send it via Email or in person to your T.A or Professor Morton.  Step 3  Get written approval from your T.A or Prof. Morton BEFORE proceeding. This could take the form of an email or could include a signature on the written paragraph with the date it was signed by one of use Step 4  Once you’ve received approval work on your CEL project proposal, contact your TA when  you have completed the project (or participated in the event). Write a final one paragraph reflection about how/why this effort on your part might or did benefit the organization & how it connects to an course concept/issue/topic. Some Examples of CEL products  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWQTPlCJmbI  Start a petition – get 100 signatures  Write a letter to your MP on behalf of a cause linked to an organization  Participate in a rally/walk/demonstration  Educate the public on behalf of an organization Entertainment media highlighted 3 views of juvenile delinquency as a social problem  Characterizes teenage offenders as suffering from a medical or psychological disease.  Is of “an alien, uncivilizable new race of ‘superpredators’ for whom there is no hope of salvation” (Rapping, 2003, p. 218). 3. Social determinism, indicating that a lack of social and moral role models corrupts our children.  Each sends specific messages about the way juvenile delinquents should be treated, ranging from rehabilitation to social sanitation through long-term incarceration (Cecil, 2009:65). Images of Women in Crime in Media  Belknap believes “it is useful to examine the images of women and crime in the popular media” (2001:23) since examining the images of females can help us understand how they are “viewed and treated by the crime-processing system” (2001:21). Representation of Criminalized Women  Pathologised  Insane, gripped by biological forces beyond their control  Infantalized  Treated like children  Passive, weak, gullible and easily lead astray – will blindly follow criminal into a life of crime  Demonized  Criminal woman as purely evil.  Sexualized  Morally bankrupt, ex. Sexual conduct  ‘sex kitten’  Masculine/Lesbian  Views any woman who breaks from stereotypical passive roles as deviant and likely to be criminal  Strong women in movies are depicted as “masculine” and lesbian characters are often presented as villains Criminal Mind  I've spent my life behind these steel bars, I've paid my debt in time but being brought to justice, that was my only crime, I don’t regret Classical School  Believed it was the natural thinking for decided their fate and not God or the devil  Objective of the law was to protect the individual of their rights  Rule of law, to try everyone equally and law applies to everyone  Hobbes- law only steps in to protect individuals from other people, social contract  Cesare Beccaria 1738-1794- Essay on Crimes and Punishment, 1764  Very critical of the law before classical approach, who you knew  The greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, crime should be viewed as an injury to society  Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832- Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1780  Utilitarian thinkers  Crime was purposeful and not supernatural  Crime comes from natural actors who make human calculation based on utilitarianism  Social construct between individuals and the state, and that everyone is to be treated equally based on the rule of law  Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Section 15.1 rule of law reference  Only reason for punishment is deterrence  Specific deterrence is key to Canadian Criminal Justice jailing  Not based on vengeance or an eye for an eye but to ensure individuals could like with maximal pleasure and little pain  Quick sentencing and court cases, so facts and evidence isn’t out dated for deterrence works properly  Severity of crime linked to the severity of the punishment  Laws are clear and certain, less relying on judges Jeremy Bentham  How to make the punishment of crime more painful than the enjoyment of committing the crime  Law exists to create happiness for all  Punishment creates unhappiness for individuals  Institutions (prisons) circular building so that al cells could be seen by standing in the center  One guard could see what is going on, more economically built, near city limits to general deterrence  The prisoners could not see the guard but they could see each other Contemporary examples of Classical Perspective:  Ration individuals choose to do the wrong thing  Irrational individuals to the wrong thing  People rationally decide to do certain actions  People do not always think rationally before acting  Stealing or committing a crime so that your family can eat or survive, rational thought  Murder is often associated with provoked individuals, they do not plan to commit the crime but lash out  Principles of utilitarianism wouldn’t be more pleasure if everyone was equally tried  Ex. Heavy fines based on poor and rich is the result of levels of pain, more pain experienced in certain situations New Right Criminology  1980s  Refers to a particular political orientation rather than to systematic coherent theory.  It’s a conservative perspective in criminology  Economic efficiency priority  New right supported a return to classical theory that focused on the individual to be responsible  More punishment focused system, " important to give people their "just desserts"  Rise in "law and order" politics  Return to Classical theory and biological positivism  War on crime and attack on the disorder of society Two Themes: 1. Responsibility for crime squarely on the individual 2. Reasserting importance of Punishment in responding to crime Law and Order common sense assumptions:  There should be more police  Police should have more power  Courts should deliver tougher penalties Greater satisfaction of victims demands more retribution through the courts Classical Theories --> Policy  "Tough on crime" "You do the crime .. You do the time!"  Safe streets and Community Act -Bill C10  Zero tolerance policies  Determinant sentences >6plants = 6 months Mandatory Minimum Mess  The standard argument in favour of mandatory sentences is that deliver certainty. If you do X, the minimum punishment you will receive is Y. Its simple, clear, and predictable. And that makes mandatory minimum sentences as powerful deterrent against crime Positive School: Biological Positivism Ceseare Lombroso (1836-1909)  Criminal was born not made  Compared Italian prisoners to Italian Soldiers and found differences in looks and characteristics  Atavism: evolutionary throwback, not being developed to the same point of normal individuals  These individuals can be outlined by the features on their bodies  Stigmata: physical characteristics, ex large ears, excessive cheek bones, long arms, extra toes or fingers  If you could find males that have 5 or more stigmata, that’s evidence to say they are criminals  Believed women could be very criminalistic  "Brain size linked to violence Positivism: The application of the scientific method to the study of the human condition (O'grady, 2011: 74).  People are NOT equal they are different!  Focus of analysis is on the nature and characteristics of the OFFENDER rather than on the criminal act.  The positivist approach is directed towards the treatment vs. punishment of offenders (Therefore indeterminate sentences). Classicism  Crime a legal entity  Free will  Punishment as deterrent Biological Theories  Constitutional theories -Body type, e.g Hooton, Sheldon -Genetics, inheritance e.g. twin studies -Mesomorphs who are strong, well developed muscles who are athletic. More thought to be involved in crime -Ectomorphs are tall, thin and inverted -Endomorphs are heavy laid back and lethargic.  Body Chemistry -Hormones e.g testosterone -Serotonin -Chemical substances e.g. alcohol and drugs, nutrition  Sociobiology -Biological determinism -Step parents are more likely to kill their step child over their natural own child Solution to Crime- TREAT using medical, chemical or surgical procedures OR  Death penalty  Life in prison or long sentencing Movie- Zeitgeist  Conditions are not genetically determined apparently Psychological Positivism  Criminal was MADE not born!  EXTERNALLY caused biological problems or INTERNAL psychological factors that were treatable! Psychological Theories  Forensic psychiatry -psychopath, sociopath  Psychoanalytic theory  Frustration-Aggression  Social Learning Theory  Behaviour Theory Positivism  Crime is a biological or psychological entity  Behaviour is determined  Treatment of criminals to protect society Psychological Positivism  Criminal was MADE not born!  EXTERNALLY caused biological problems (e.g. head injury) or INTERNAL psychological factors that were treatable! -You can make positive reform using science to change the social environment in a positive way -Embrace and use scientific ways to do everything (parent, personal troubles, inefficiencies, young offenders etc) -This approach could lead to wide scale social reform -Relied on the argument that their judgments, strategies and approach was derived by the scientific method – manage and address social problems Psychological Theories:  Personality Disorders  Psychoanalytic theory  Frustration-Aggression  Social Learning Theory -Doctors spent most of their time looking at inmates -Became able to classify and diagnose the offenders -They found major differences between people and their ranges of differences found that the majority were not responsible for their actions -Given their medical background it wouldn’t be surprising to us for practitioners to see their population as pathological -Have to “cure” them -More emphasis on treatment than punishment -Broadly speaking, looking at many psychological theories, they centre their attention on the process of the mind – generally come from three areas: personality trait (aggression), psychoanalytic (conscious and unconscious; emotion and developmental perspective and explanation), psychiatric issues (early experiences, childhood influences that have somehow negatively affected a basic need – leading to a personality issue later in life) Personality Disorders  Antisocial Personality Disorder o inability to learn from experience, lack of warmth, disregard for and violation of, the rights of others, and absence of guilt.  Psychopathy, sociopathy -Antisocial personality disorder; range of behaviours identified with this is huge -Inability to learn from experience -Explanation is that they’re “sick” or have a “disease of the mind” -Deterrence wouldn’t work – they don’t learn from what they did wrong -They have a disregard for the fact that they’re harming others, they just don’t care – don’t have the guilt that is associated with actions -Common reference (psychopath and sociopath) Ashley Smith (19 yrs) 2007  “ diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality traits, but said her conduct and condition didn't warrant being given multiple doses of antipsychotic drugs, which were forcibly injected despite the fact she consented to oral medication.” Psychoanalytic Theory  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Human personality contains a three part structure: Mental disorders arising from a conflict with societal expectations and the instinctive needs of the individual 1. Superego (ethical principle) 2. Ego (reality principle) 3. ID (pleasure principle) Social Learning Theory  Albert Bandura (1973) Social Learning Theory  Modelling – Bobo doll experiment  Aggressive behaviour is learned from 3 sources:  family  subcultural influences  symbolic modeling -Takes into account the influence of the environment -Either through direct experience or modelling behaviour, learn actions Solution to crime?  Treatment &/or incapacitate  People can act for reasons outside their control, and these factors may reduce level of responsibility.  Assess mental capacity to stand trial. -Influence or affect that violence has on youth (social learning theory) and males in intimate - relationships (sons growing up seeing father beating mother, son will beat wife – theoretically) Psychological Theories Policy  Drug treatment courts  Anger management programs  Partner Assault Response programs Consensus vs. Conflict theories  Consensus model: A general consensus or agreement within society of shared norms and values and agreement on the definition of criminal behaviour. Assumption is that some individuals and groups fail to adjust to this definition/set of norms. -Assume that there is a collective sense of what is right and wrong -The way we define criminal behaviour is based on collective conscious of bad and good  Conflict model: Society is composed of diverse social groups with different definitions of right and wrong. Focus attention on how some groups are able to influence the definition of what is criminal. Not only do we not agree as a group about a set of shared norms, values and beliefs; but there is a real plurality among groups and they’re very different about what they think, what should be criminal behaviour and what shouldn’t -They are competing with each other; it’s a power struggle for resources -They don’t think the same things are agreed to in terms of right and wrong -Who is it that gets to make those decisions about criminal behaviour and how is it that they get to define and influence the definitions of crime and how the justice system responds Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Structure  Social Disorganization  Park & Burgess – Social Ecology (Chicago School)  Shaw & McKay – Cultural Transmission (Chicago School)  Strain Theory  Merton - Anomie  Cohen – “Middle Class Measuring Rod”  Cloward & Ohlin – Differential Opportunity Theory Strain Theories  Consensus based  Social structure and social learning influence the attitudes and behaviour of the individual.  Examine social pathology rather than individual pathology. -These theories also fit in a positivist frame -Attempted to show how the structure of society impacts individual behaviour -Start to see larger content emerging, saying what’s happening in the environment affects the individual -Something’s wrong with the environment -Normal people in abnormal situations vs. the opposing -Strains are generated by society Durkheim and Strain Theory  crime is essentially a social phenomenon and criminality is a product of a specific kind of social order.  A society without shared norms functions poorly social strain anomie which leads to a breakdown in society and increases suicide and crime -Try to re-socialize people -Important connection between the way a society’s organized and the socio-cultural life where people develop norms and values -Collective conscience; in these societies we have a set of beliefs that are common to all of us – we have a group goal to achieve success (material and financial, power and status) -Also related to the American Dream, what’s it look like if you’ve “made it” -Lose sense of collectiveness and goals when society functions poorly – anomie Social Disorganization Social Disorganization theories link crime to neighbourhood ecological characteristics.  Park & Burgess – Social Ecology (Chicago School) (1920’s)  Shaw & McKay - Cultural Transmission (Chicago School) (1940’s – 1960’s) -Started to see a change in societies, wanted to understand crime -Rapid social change and rapid population growth that was transforming Chicago’s urban neighbourhoods --People coming in from Europe, no longer homogenous Many things started to change the ecology which these guys thought were important -Led to a disorganized social environment (high unemployment and high school drop out) – ghettos, increased levels of poverty, increased population of single parent households, ethnic diversity – crime rate was highest in areas where those factors were greatest -Strain à conflict, discouraged, despair etc -Start to see how sociological theories differ from individual theories; coming together to define crime -Linked crime to life in a transitional slum area; if you were there, there was high turnover – you’re helping to socially control/regulate each other’s behaviour because you don’t know everyone -Crime and delinquency – increasing differentiation with the haves and have nots -Kids have to assimilate (immigrants) and have pressure to assimilate rather than stay with their parents’ traditional views -Over emphasis on street crime Social not individual explains crime!  Social disorganization was responsible for crime NOT biological or psychological pathology! Anomie  Anomie – Greek “anomia”= “without norms”  Normlessness Merton  Robert K. Merton (1950’s and 60’s)  Influenced by Durkheim and (anomie) and Talcott Parsons (structural-functionalism)  “What is it about our society and cultural institutions, not just individual characteristics such as feeblemindedness, that causes deviance?” Anomie and Social Structure  Crime related to 2 main variables  Culturally defined goals of a society  Institutionalized means of attaining these goals  Crime is a symptom of a gap between GOALS and MEANS Merton’s Paradigm of Deviant Behaviour Goal Means Conformity + + Innovation + - Ritualism - + Retreatism - - Rebellion - - + + -Gap between goals and means, gap is structured legitimate needs -Anomie leads to crime -Strain was a feature of society -Crime is not uniformly distributed; wealthy have more access to legitimate needs à therefore less need to achieve it Jane/Finch Neighbourhood TO -Shortage of settlement, language, employment services, public transportation, schools overcrowded, no community centres. Racial tensions grew with complex mosaic of immigrants (White, Haines, Eisler, 2004:70 Environmental Criminological Theory  Defensible Space – Oscar Newman  Increased levels of surveillance and space that discourages criminal activity. Status Frustration (sub-cultural theory)  Albert Cohen (1955) -Lower classes lack access to legitimate means to attain status based on muddle-class value system and consequentially engage in delinquency. -Rejecting the values and status and react -Form criminal subculture like gangs to deal with strain Middle-Class Measuring Rod  Albert Cohen (1955) -Authority figures (education) set standards based on middle-class measuring rods- frustration/shame faced by youth who fail to meet standards and they react with delinquency Education Act-Ontario  In 2005 legislation "requires students to keep learning in a classroom or workplace training program, including apprenticeship until they age of 18 or until they graduate Differential Opportunities  Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin 1960's (strain, social disorganization, differential association) -Lower-class youth remain goal oriented (unlike Cohen) -Opportunities for illegitimate success (both conventional and illegal) are also unequally distributed -Lower class have a lower chance of getting illegitimate gangs, doubley disadvantaged, (Ex. No gang in area) New Versions of Strain Theory:  Robert Agnew- General Strain Theory (1985)  Delinquent behaviour is a coping mechanism that results from not being able to avoid stressful situations -Examples of negative stimuli – loss of boyfriend/girlfriend, divorce, step of parents, suspended from school -Antisocial beahviour- drug abuse, delinquency, violence, cropping out -Sources of Strain- failure to achieve, removal of positive stimuli, presention of negative stimuli, disjunction of expectations and achievements  Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfield- Institutional Strain Theory (1994) -$ concerns dominate & this weakens the informal social control exerted by family, church and school. Social Structure ----> Policy  Education/training programs  Community development  Community recreation programs  Bully intervention programs  Gang prevention programs Social Process Theories  Social Process- interaction between individuals and society  All people have the potential to become delinquent or criminals  Crime is a process an is the outcome of interaction Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Process  Social Learning Theories -Sutherland - differential association theory  Labelling Theory (interactionist perspective -Lemert – Primary/Secondary Deviance -Sykes & Matza –Neutralization Theory -Becker – Moral Enterprise  Social Control Theories  Hirschi - Social Bonds and Self Control  Edwin Sutherland (1939)- Differential Association Theory -Crime is a function of a learning process that could affect anyone -People learn criminal attitudes and behaviour while in adolescence from close and trusted relatives and companions -Definitions for crime outweigh definitions against crime. Labelling Theory (Interactionist Perspective)  Challenges notion of social consensus Reality is produced through social construction   Importance of power relations in a given society --- who does the labelling? Labelling Theories:  Two effects of labelling:  Creation of Stigma -"You're a delinquent!"  Effect on self image- "I AM a delinquent!"  Edwin Lemert- Primary/Secondary Deviance  Howard Becker (1963)- Moral Enterprise Lemert- Primary/Secondary deviance  Primary Deviance: involves an offender's initial act of deviance  Secondary Deviance: continued acts of deviance; internalizes negative label and assumes the role of the deviant Moral Enterprise-Howard Becker  Deviant behaviour is behaviour that people label so!  Moral Enterprise- the effort an interest group goes through to get what it thinks is wrong and codified in law Age of Consent to Sexual Activity  The tackling Violent Crime Act raised the legal age of sexual consent in Canada to 16 from 14, the first time it has been raised since 1892  "Close-in-age exception", meaning 14- and 15-year-olds can have sex with someone who is less than five years older Neutralization Theory  Matza and Sykes (1957) -People become free to commit crime when beliefs "neutralize" the control normative and standards usually have -Process of "drift" between deviance and constraint -Offenders develop a set of crime-justifying beliefs Techniques of Neutralization  Denial of responsibility  Denial of injury 3. Denial of victim 4. Condemnation of the condemners 5. Appeal to higher loyalties The Muse- Labelling theory is a conflict theory Legacy of Labelling Theory  Societies' definition of a be
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