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Lecture 4

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

January 29, 2014 Sociology Lecture 4 Chicago School Human Ecology Model -based their theory of plants and the environments to apply it to humans – the way living matter lives in their environment -some species can become incompatible with others -competition for resources in certain areas -some species end up perishing as a result -one part of the system affects another part of the system -looking at the way humans create their own environment and engage with other species and other people in that environment -the competition in urban cities for resources is the result of many people living in one area Zone One: Business Core – businesses, government offices, in the core or loop of the city, most expensive Zone Two: transitional zone, it is always in transition, property value is cheap because people don’t take care of the properties (the inner city or the ghetto), it is expected that people will move out Zone Three: two and three family dwellings, working class families, people who have migrated out of zone two and can afford somewhere better, working class, residential zone Zone Four: Middle class residential area, single family dwellings, more expensive, small businesses, professional offices (dentists, doctors), brightly lit, more trees, grass Zone Five: the commuter zone, people who can afford to commute into the city to work, suburbia, bigger houses, typically more expensive as a result of bigger properties Shaw and McKay -mapped all of the reported crimes based on statistics from police -more crime in zone two than any other area -social organization in zone two which is why there is more crime -social controls are weakened in zone two -lack of organization and social control -no connection to community -constant influx of new people, new immigrants and people that are new to the city breaking the sense of community -the more disorganized an area is, the more susceptible it is to crime -less crime further out because it is more organized Policies -Policing, Community, Organization, Education and Quality of Life -focus attention and resources, policing, etc. into zone two -focus on promoting unity within a community, social organization -improving education and school under the belief that more education is equal to more organization -improve the quality of life in that area – schools, health, recreational areas Criticisms -Class bias - assumes that middle class is organized and is better from a middle class perspective (drug dealing takes a lot of organization), it assumes that crime doesn’t exist or isn’t perpetrated in middle class residential areas -Discriminatory – more police in zone two will result in the assumption that more crime is committed in that area, those of lower classes or of minorities are more likely to move through the system Functionalism (Consensus Perspective) -they operate or theorize about social life in terms of there being a consensus among people and of what is right and wrong behavior -no society is entirely crime free so it must serve some kind of function -What Causes Deviance? What Causes people to Commit Crimes? -it serves some kind of purpose to them or to society Manifest Functions- those that are intended, people commit crimes intentionally to support themselves if they cant purchase shelter or food Latent Functions – unintentional, the person that commits crime goes to prison and learns to commit other crimes Functions of Crime 1. Group Solidarity -when crime aims to integrate members of society to promote group solidarity -brings people together in common outrage to work through the pain of something that has happened -Example – when a child is abducted or sexually assaulted, the neighborhood comes together to help with a search leading to group solidarity -sometimes results in changes to the law 2. Boundary Setting Function -sometimes behaviors can border on the line of acceptable and unacceptable -it is not always clear when the line has been crossed -when people engage in different behaviors, it can be used to show how a behavior has crossed the line to show others that the behavior is not acceptable -create new laws to prevent that behavior -Sexual Harassment (touching a shoulder, comments, offering sex, what crosses the line) -determine what is and isn’t acceptable 3. Reinforce Conformity -we want to reward and motivate saintly behavior as a way to draw attention to that behavior -using people as exemplars to support conformity -punish people who violate society’s rules 4. Innovation -social flexibility and change -refusing to move to the back of the bus (to remove discriminatory laws) -can allow for social progress – can be an important element of society Emile Durkheim -one of the founding fathers of sociology -known for his research on suicide -it was believed that suicide was a very individualistic idea to end someone’s life -looked at statistics – suicide was tied to religion and social aspects of life -argued that committing suicide is more social than individualistic -relating to group solidarity and how people adapted to the concept of Anomie ANOMIE - Social norms and values become unclear or confusing – a condition where there are a lack of norms or a state of normlessness (new situation or a change) -can impact peoples crime and deviance – related to social solidarity Mechanical Solidarity -bound together by sameness Agricultural society -shared conditions -something affecting one person can affect everyone within the group -dependent on everyone in the small group for survival Organic -based on difference and mutual dependence on each other for survival -complex division of labor -reliance on many different people -the system will survive without the presence of one person -violation of rules does not affect everyone in the society Strain Theory/Anomie (Merton 1968) Two Concepts Goals (Cultural) -material wealth and possessions -accumulating wealth (the American Dream) Means (Institutionalized) -the means of achieving that goal -the legitimate way (education and work) that a person obtains wealth -education could lead to a good job and money -everyone is on equal ground + represents the acceptance - represents the non acceptance Innovative – are blocked from wealth and are unable to achieve this due to illegitimate goals (Drug Dealers) Ritualism – you reject the idea you will obtain wealth, rules followers, don’t expect to get ahead, Retreatism – addicts, drug abusers, homelessness, doing doesn’t care about being part of the system or cultures) Rebellion – try to change the rules for the better or worse, discontent on the way society is structured (9/11, Martin Luther King) Problems -if someone has the legitimate means to obtain something (they don’t need it but do it anyways) -assumes that middle and upper class don’t commit crimes -female opportunities are known to be innovators and they should therefore should commit more crimes -Consensus – the only goals we have should be related to material wealth -Biased Statistics -Assumptions – ignores people who engage in illegal activities for fun or for money (don’t drink or do drugs to get money), Status Frustration Albert Cohen (1955) -there are other goals related to crime other than money -there is a frustrated with obtaining a middle class status -when kids go to school there are usually mixes of middle classes – younger grades cannot live up to the middle class, become frustrated, developing sub cultures or gangs through fighting Differential (Illegitimate) Opportunity Cloward and Ohlin (1960) Criminal -the opportunities that exist to younger individuals -based on ability and opportunity Conflict -the better off your skills are, the better status they will have -Conflict – engage in violence and confidence in order to participate in a fight, asked to be recruited into a social group Retreatist -double failures -don’t have the strength or mental ability -drug problems Policies Regulation -focus on areas in which gangs are going to engage in fighting -be more proactive when facing the laws Economic expansions Education -being able to afford education Redistribution -make available to different and disadvantaged people in the community Training -more skill specific training -less likely to turn to crime Differential Association (Sutherland 1934) -influential in explaining juvenile and white collar crime -why are some people more criminal than others -Argument – some social groups possess pro criminal traditions and that gets passed through the process of socialization, some groups encourage deviance -Cultural Tradition of crime that can be passed through generations- the closer you are to the groups that adhere to criminality the more likely you will participate in criminal acts Nine Propositions by Sutherland 1. Criminal Behavior is learned – it is not inherited but is learned like any other behavior, rejecting the biological and psychological explanation 2. Interaction with other persons in a process of communication – communicating different things that would be required to commit a crime, crime just like any other conventional behavior is learned through communication 3. Intimate Personal Groups – we learn more from our family and our close friends than from strangers 4. Learning includes techniques and a specific direction of motives, drives, rationalization and attitudes towards e
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