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SOC 1500 (761)
Lecture 7

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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

March 5, 2014 Crime and Criminal Justice: Lecture Seven Categories of Crime 1. Street Crime (Conventional) -how we think about crime -Offenders – committed by the common person, can be anyone, typically those of lower class -Responsibility – an individual level of responsibility, we can identify the perpetrators responsible, easily identifiable -Property crime – any crime committed against property, theft, breaking and entering, motor vehicle theft -Violent crimes – any crime committed against a person that can cause harm – -Criminal Justice System – court, police, corrections -more likely to be enforced 2. White Collar Crime -government, political, corporate crime -offenders tend to be of upper or middle class -occupation lends you the opportunity to commit white collar crime – related to a prestigious position in a company, middle class management positions -more responsible crime – embezzlement, individual -corporate – part of an organization -police, corrections and police rarely deal with the crime, it is more often dealt with internally Traffic criminal code – not normal traffic violations, impaired driving, dangerous operation of a vehicle causing death Fed Statutes – trafficking, prostitution, gambling NOTE: Assault Level one – the verbal threat Assault Level two – use of a weapon, violent Assault Level three – causing bodily harm Violent Crime: Homicide -the death of a human being that someone other than the victim is the cause of that death 1) Murder First degree – planned and deliberate, premeditation, considered -the death of an officer, custodian, detective or other personnel that is on duty -when someone is killed during the commission of a crime -life in prison without the possibility of parole until 25 years, unless they are labelled as a dangerous offender they can be put into prison indefinitely -accounts for 5-10% of homicides Second degree -murder that is not first degree, does not meet the criteria of first degree murder or manslaughter -the prosecutor can decide that it is second degree murder if there is no proof that it was deliberate -accounts for 20 to 30% of homicides -life in prison with the possibility of parole after 15 years Manslaughter -homicide that occurs through the heat of passion, immediate and in that moment, not planned -homicides that occur accidently – the intent is to assault someone but somebody dies (such as in a fight) -Accounts for 50-60% -maximum is life in prison – average is between 8 and 15 years -it is recognized that the person did not want to take someone’s life – they are most often provoked or it is accidental Infanticide -occurs when a female by willful act or omission causes the death of a newborn child (under the age of one) -the effects of giving birth – biological or chemical imbalances -young mothers wanting to conceal the fact that they are pregnant (kill the baby after it is born) -makes up less than 5% of cases -the sentence is psychiatric supervision -it is believed that psychiatric help is more beneficial than going through the prison system – the person is thought to be under duress Statistics (rate) -how often a crime happens -standardize these rates to compare from year to year and between countries -standardize to the 100,000 people in a population -calculation for comparison ( #of homicides/population x 100,000 ) In 1975 the homicide rate was the highest recorded, it is now approximately 1.56 By province -the rate increases as you move from east to west with the exception of British Columbia -the coast has a high rate of homicide -Manitoba has the highest rate of homicide -we do not compare to the territories because the population is so small, causing the rates to look too high or too low -comparison is limited to the provinces -Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta have the highest rates of homicide -the graphs for the territories show the great variability that homicides cause in the territories due to the small populations -shooting and stabbings are the most common homicide methods reported despite the variety of methods that homicides occur in -they account for 70-80% of all homicide cases -most shootings are causes from a hand gun that has been obtained illegally Characteristics Ethnicity -Homicide is the only crime in Canada that we collect an individual’s ethnicity – people are classified as Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal -Aboriginals are most likely to be killed and most likely to kill another Aboriginal – inner racial crimes Sex -males account for the greatest number of victims and offenders -9:1 (90% male offenders) -3:2 (66% male victims) Age -typically 18-24 Rare Trends Occurring in 2012 -In 2012, the highest female offenders were in the 30-39 age category -In 2012, the highest male victims were in the 30-39 age category -In 2012, the highest female victims were in the 40 and above categories Young Offenders (12-17) -account for 7-10% of all homicides -the rate in the United States is 10 times higher than in Canada -in Canada, most young offenders tend to kill alone and focus on one victim -in the United States, they tend to kill in groups -in United States, young offenders kills their friends and acquaintances -in Canada, young offenders are more likely to kill their families -most often, young offenders use a gun Adult Homicide -in Canada, most likely to kill people that they have a close relationship with – spouses, family, friends, followed by acquaintances or strangers -the death of a stranger most often occurs accidently through fights -males are more likely to be killed by a stranger than females are -common location to be killed – in the victims residence where people feel the most safe -second common location is a friend or family home, or a public place such as a bar -third most common location is the workplace which is not common Motivations for Adults -passion – related to jealousy, despair (50-60%) -Financial gain or to settle accounts – if someone owes you something -5-10% of cases there is no apparent motive *In Canada a motive is not needed for a murder to take place whereas in the United States there must be a motive -about 70-90% of homicides are solved – the person responsible is identified -the police spend the resources and time to solve these cases -drugs and alcohol play an extremely important role in homicides (60% of homicides have either the victim or the accused consumed prior to or during the altercation) Serial Killing 35 to 100 serial killers are operating in the United States each year -serial killings often occur between strangers -called repeat killers before the 1980s -defined as the series of 3 homicides by an individual or a couple that spans over time -in some areas it requires 5, but in Canada it is only 3 Paul Bernardo was labelled as a serial killer after 2murders under the possibility that he would continue with a third killer Jack the Ripper (England) was a serial killer in the late 1800s, he killed 5 or 6 victims – he was never caught, he targeted prostitutes Ed Gein – involved himself in mutilation and cannibalism of upper class women (first serial killer in the USA) Generic Stereotypes -physical characteristics – unattractive or ugly (we believe that attractive people are good and can do no wrong) -social characteristics – they will be from lower classes, not much education (Paul Bernardo had a degree) -there can be a stop or interruption in killings – sometimes serial killers have spent time in prison for other offenses or they move so one location is not connected to another place Victims -serial killers tend to focus on one type of victim (move through a spectacle based on their motives) -can be all female (Ted Bundy, Paul Bernardo, and Karla Homolka) -can be all male (Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy) -can target both male and female (Carol Bundy and Doug Clark) Apprehension -they usually target strangers -nothing ties them to that person -Often caught by luck – brought in for questionings about something else -tends to be a lot of planning in serial killing – cleaning up of crime scenes, not leaving traces, being able to apprehend victims without leaving anything behind, less evidence and therefore less chance of identifying the person -Police investigations are based on the probabilities of who killed this person – rule out certain people based on how people are connected to that person -strangers are last to consider unless there is a robbery, there is no connection Typologies of male serial killers 1. Visionary -mental illness, hallucinations, psychological, related to schizophrenia 2. Mission Oriented -one will eliminate a certain group to rid the world of those people (Jack the Ripper worked towards killing prostitutes) 3. Hedonistic -people who are doing it for the lust and thrill -they get pleasure out of torturing or killing other people -a terrorizing of the victims prior to killing them (Paul Bernardo)
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