SOC 1500 Lecture Notes - Anger Management, Due Process, Parens Patriae

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4 Apr 2012
Week 9 Notes
November 1st 2011
Violent Crime, Youth Crime, VAW
Balance individual rights/liberty side vs. crime control (keeping the
Contd. From last week
Left Realism Approach
- Detailed specific studies of crime and victimization
- Community policing (emphasis on crime prevention)
- Alternative methods of crime reduction i.e. Drug use as a health
care issue, not a criminal justice issue
Left Realist Contribution
- Take into account those most affected by crime marginalised and
working class
- Translate their concerns into policy
- Left wing response to New Right “Law and order” political debate.
Critique of Left Realism
- Early Versions
o Definitions of crime went uncontested
o Scope of victimization and response too narrow
o No realistic penal policy
o Criminal law could be solution/liberating!
- Most recent versions lost its defining parameters no separate
Feminist Criminology
- Looks at who holds and wields power in society and questions how
this impacts women
- Developed in late 60’s and mid 70’s closely associated with the
emergence of the Second Wave of Feminism
- No single theory, many strands of feminism
Goodbye Earl
- The Criminal justice system is failing the girls had to take the law
into their own hands
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- It is easier for women to commit crime and get away with it
Critiques of Mainstream theories
- Generalizability studies derived from the study of men assumed to
be able to account for female crime/offenders
- Gender-Ration Problem Why is it women and men have vastly
divergent rates of criminal offending (Miller, 2003:16)?
IN terms of criminology, gender is the most important variable in
explaining crime.
Feminist Critique of Criminology
- Theories ignore the sex variable altogether deals only with male
- Theories that blue the distinction between sex and gender
- Theories that ignore the impact of gendered relationships.
Feminist Criminology
- Main focus of analysis is:
o The unequal position of women in society
o The specific kinds of crimes committed against women as
women and
o The status of female offenders in the context of wider social
inequalities and gender based oppressions
Family Violence 2009 Stats Canada
- 83% of victims continue to be female
- Female victims (61%) of family violence were nearly twice as likely
as males (32%) to have been victimized by a spouse
- Shelter Capacity
Recognition of Female Victimization
- Language
- Legislation e.g.
o Wife assault in Criminal Code, 1983
o Sexual harassment in Human Rights Code, 1990
o Criminal Harassment in Criminal Code, 1993
o Sexual Assault changes, 1983
Sexual Violence Action Plan, 2011 Ontario
- Public educ
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Thursday November 3rd 2011
Violent Crime, Youth Crime, VAW Contd.
Fear of Victimization
- 58% of female night time transit users worried when taking it alone
at night
- 27% of women worried for their personal safety when they were
home alone at night
- Women were almost three times as likely to be afraid for their safety
when walking home after dark
Risks as Gendered
- Women negotiate the risk of personal harm in the context of
knowing that their assailant will most probably be a man while men
do not, as a general empirical rule, encounter women with the
same sense of trepidation
Responsibilization Strategy”
- Advice literature/safekeeping strategy examples?
- Deserving/undeserving victims?
Killing Us Softly Video Clip
- They say pornography has become mainstream
Response Active Intervention!
- Increase legal recognition of crimes against women and enforce
(e.g. sexual violence)
- Crimes against women a result of social oppression and economic
dependency so greater economic, social, political equality
- Address treatment of criminalized women
Juristat Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics 2008 Female Offenders
- 1 in 5 accused by police of a criminal code offence were female
- Female crime ¼ of male crime
- Theft, common assault, bail violations and fraud
- Infrequently repeat offenders
- Rate of serious violent crime among female youth doubled since
Incarcerated Women
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