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SOC*1500 - Week 9 Notes.docx

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SOC 1500
Mavis Morton

SOC*1500 Week 9 Notes November 1 2011t Violent Crime, Youth Crime, VAW Balance  individual rights/liberty side vs. crime control (keeping the peace) Contd. From last week Left Realism Approach - Detailed specific studies of crime and victimization - Community policing (emphasis on crime prevention) - Alternative methods of crime reduction i.e. Drug use as a health care issue, not a criminal justice issue Left Realist Contribution - Take into account those most affected by crime – marginalised and working class - Translate their concerns into policy - Left wing response to New Right “Law and order” political debate. Critique of Left Realism - Early Versions – o Definitions of crime went uncontested o Scope of victimization and response too narrow o No realistic penal policy o Criminal law could be solution/liberating! - Most recent versions – lost its defining parameters no separate theory WEEK 9 NOTES! Feminist Criminology - Looks at who holds and wields power in society and questions how this impacts women - Developed in late 60’s and mid 70’s closely associated with the emergence of the Second Wave of Feminism - No single theory, many strands of feminism Goodbye Earl - The Criminal justice system is failing – the girls had to take the law into their own hands - It is easier for women to commit crime and get away with it Critiques of Mainstream theories - Generalizability – studies derived from the study of men assumed to be able to account for female crime/offenders - Gender-Ration Problem – Why is it women and men have vastly divergent rates of criminal offending (Miller, 2003:16)? IN terms of criminology, gender is the most important variable in explaining crime. Feminist Critique of Criminology - Theories ignore the sex variable altogether – deals only with male criminality - Theories that blue the distinction between sex and gender - Theories that ignore the impact of gendered relationships. Feminist Criminology - Main focus of analysis is: o The unequal position of women in society o The specific kinds of crimes committed against women as women and o The status of female offenders in the context of wider social inequalities and gender based oppressions Family Violence 2009 Stats Canada - 83% of victims continue to be female - Female victims (61%) of family violence were nearly twice as likely as males (32%) to have been victimized by a spouse - Shelter Capacity  Recognition of Female Victimization - Language - Legislation e.g. o Wife assault in Criminal Code, 1983 o Sexual harassment in Human Rights Code, 1990 o Criminal Harassment in Criminal Code, 1993 o Sexual Assault changes, 1983 Sexual Violence Action Plan, 2011 – Ontario - Public educThursday November 3 2011rd SOC*1500 Violent Crime, Youth Crime, VAW Contd. Fear of Victimization - 58% of female night time transit users worried when taking it alone at night - 27% of women worried for their personal safety when they were home alone at night - Women were almost three times as likely to be afraid for their safety when walking home after dark Risks as Gendered - Women negotiate the risk of personal harm in the context of knowing that their assailant will most probably be a man while men do not, as a general empirical rule, encounter women with the same sense of trepidation Responsibilization Strategy” - Advice literature/safekeeping strategy examples? o - Deserving/undeserving victims? Killing Us Softly Video Clip - They say pornography has become mainstream Response – Active Intervention! - Increase legal recognition of crimes against women and enforce (e.g. sexual violence) - Crimes against women a result of social oppression and economic dependency so greater economic, social, political equality - Address treatment of criminalized women Juristat – Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics 2008 Female Offenders Canada - 1 in 5 accused by police of a criminal code offence were female - Female crime ¼ of male crime - Theft, common assault, bail violations and fraud - Infrequently repeat offenders - Rate of serious violent crime among female youth doubled since 1986 Incarcerated Women - The fastest growing prison population worldwide is women, in particular racialized, young poor women and women with cognitive and mental disabilities Age Graded Pathways - A newer theory - Implications of early violent victimization and involvement in criminal offending - Blurred distinction between victimization and offending - Offending and victimization as overlapping and reciprocal events in the lives of women (Kaukinen et al. 2006) Critiques of Feminist Perspectives - Have not always dealt adequately with class, ethnicity and race - Needs to do more than offer a woman centered analysis and focus on gender relations more broadly - Taking into account the larger social, political legal context that helps to explain the number of variables that interrelate to explain victimization and women’s offender  sociological imagination - Too much of a focus on women as victims  not enough on how women challenge their offense - Focus on women’s experiences in a vacuum without looking at a larger issue of gender relations Conceptualization of Masculinity - Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity o Violent masculinity of culture norm  YOUTUBE VIDEO  Reinforces how we see masculinity and how it connects to violence  Connected to social learning theory  needs to add the connection between gender and power Killed By a Stranger Heart Disease and Car Accidents Violent Crime in Canada - 1 in 5 crimes reported to police is violent - 3500 fewer reported violent incidents in 2008 Sexual Orientation and Victimization Study, 2004 - First time ever to ask Canadians to identify their sexual orientationHomicide in Canada 2010 - Lowest homicide rate in over 40 years! - 554 homicides in Canada – representing less than 1% of violent incident reports to Police - Organized crime and/or gang activity is related to fewer than I1 in 5 homicides in Canada each year In 2009 - 619 homicides reported by police - 103 homicide rate in Toronto, most in any CMA. Compared to population its not that bad. Violent Crime Severity Index - The police reported Violent Crime Severity Index declined 3% in 2008 Traditional Violent Crime Categories - Homicide - Sexual assault - Robbery Neweer - Multiple murder (serial/mass) - Hate Violence - Workplace Violence (Occupation Heath and Safety Act) - Political Violence/terrorism (Anti Terrorism Act) Shooting/Stabbings 2010 - Over the past 30 years, shootings and stabbings have each accounted for about one third of all homicides Homicides in the GTA 2005-2010 - Interactive map to locate murders YOUTH CRIME Common Beliefs about Youth Crime 1. It is increasing dramatically 2. More serious violent crimes are being committed 3. Happening at an earlier age 4. More lenient sentences 5. Number of youth charged is increasing a. OUT OF CONTROL YOUTH Perception of Youth Crime - “To the public delinquency means violence” (Hartnagel, 2004:366) Youth Violent Crime - 153000 youth aged 12 to 17 were accused of a crime in 2010, almost 15000 fewer than 2009 - Rate for youth fell by 5% in 2008, the fourth decline in the past 5 years - The youth violent crime rate which declined by 3% has been relatively stable since 2000 Youth Crime: where and when? - Robbery was one of the few offences to show an increase for youth in 2010- 2% residences - Youth crime (23%0 and youth drug offences were more likely to happen after school and on school property School Violence and Moral Panics - Rate of juveniles murdered outside of school is 40% higher than in school - # of youth struck by lighetning is 2xs the nuber kulled by gun violence in school Gun Crimes Among teens on the rise – StatsCan - y
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