Others believing that social influence should be more subtle and that individuals should be more subtle and that
individuals should participate more in changing themselves, encourage clients to discuss their own irrational thinking
and then gently lead them to discover more rational ways of regarding the world.
Meichenbaum’s Cognitive-Behaviour Modification:
Meichenbaum has shifted in a “constructivist” direction, emphasizing the narrative organization of experience.
The term constructivist is used “to encompass the broad panoply of perspectives that emphasize those processes by
which meaning is constructed by human beings in personal, interpersonal, and social contexts.
EVALUATING THE COGNITIVE PARADIGM:
Criticisms; the concepts on which it is based (eg; schema) are abstract and not always well defined.
Cognitive explanations of psychopathology tend to focus more on current determinants of a disorder and less on its
CONSEQUENCES OF ADOPTING A PARADIGM:
The student who adopts a particular paradigm necessarily makes a prior decision what kinds of data will be collected
and how they will be interpreted. Thus he may very well ignore possibilities and overlook other information in
advancing what seems to be the most probable explanation.
DIFFERENT PERPECTIVES ON A CLINICAL PROBLEM : CATHY: A CASE OF TRICHOTILLOMANIA:
trichotilomania (TTM): impulse control disorder involving chronic hair pulling.
ECLECTICISM IN PSYCHOTHERAPY: PRACTICE MAKES IMPERFECT:
Many therapists subscribe to eclecticism, employing ideas and therapeutic techniques from a variety of schools. Prescriptive eclectic therapy, recent survey of therapists suggests that an eclectic approach may be the norm rather
than the exception.
Therapists often behave in ways not entirely consistent with the theories that they hold.
DIATHESIS STRESS AND BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL : INTEGRATIVE PARADIGMS:
THE DIATHESIS-STRESS PARADIGM:
diathesis-stress: links biological, psychological and environmental factors.
focuses on the interaction between a predisposition toward disease – the diathesis – and environmental, or life,
disturbances – the stress. Diathesis refers most precisely to a constitutional predisposition toward illness, but the term
may be extended to any characteristic or set of characteristics that increases a person’s chance of developing a disorder.
Possessing the disorder increases a person’s risk of developing it but does not guarantee that the disorder will
develop. IT is the stress part of diathesis-stress that accounts for how a diathesis may be translated into an actual
psychopathology is unlikely to result from any single factor.
MENTAL HEALTH IMPLIC