Class Notes (837,708)
Canada (510,399)
Sociology (2,990)
SOC 2070 (342)
Lecture 4

SOC*2070 Lecture Week 4

9 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

Monday, Jan 28, 2012 Explaining Deviance: The Perception, Reaction and Power: Socio- logical Theories of Deviance - Explaining Deviance: The Perception, Reaction and Power - Interpretive Theories - Symbolic Interactionism - Labeling and Stigmatization Critical Theories - there are 4: - Conflict Theories - Power Reflective Theories - Feminist Theories - Postmodern Theories These Topics Will Be Covered Too: - The Constructionist Stance - Relativism Labeling - Against Relativism: A Harm Based Conception of DEviance - Social Power: Conflict Theory - Feminist Theory “There are no moral phenomenon at all, only a moral interpretation of phenomena (Friedrich Nietzsche) - positivist focuses on the actor or the act and tries to explain why some people behave in deviant ways and why some people don’t - objective - deviance can be identified and explained in a clear way - interpretive and critical theories are more subjective - focusing on individual deviance implies assumptions on how people should act - we should not assume normative behaviour is indicative of how people should act - interest is in the perceptions and reactions to the act - also the role of power in influencing these perceptions Interpretive & Critical Theories Do not focus on the act, instead they focus on: Monday, Jan 28, 2012 - perceptions of the act - reactions to the act - influence of power in perceptions & reactions Interpretive Theories Emphasize: - social interaction - meanings, understandings, interpretations Critical Theories Emphasize: - interest in emancipation and social justice - power relations - a combination of several interpretive and critical theories is associated with social con- structionism that informs more subjective understandings of deviance Joel Best: The Constructionist Stance A. Berger and Luckmann’s (1966) work on sociology of knowledge - they show how social life shapes everything people know - they introduce the term “social constructionism” - micro-analysis of labeling theory - how individuals encounter reactions - joins it with the more broader theories B. Labeling theory, dominant approach to studying deviance in 1960s, was criticized - conflict theories claimed labeling theory ignored how elites shape deviance definitions - feminists claimed labeling theory ignored women’s victimization by men - gay rights activists argued for political rights Constructionists - assigning meaning or making sense of behaviours classified as deviant Interpretive Theories - Symbolic Interactionism - Labeling Theories - Deviant Career Symbolic Interactionism - foundations of other interpretive theories These contribute to the way we understand meaning: - role-taking - see the world form the point of view of others Monday, Jan 28, 2012 - looking-glass self - how do we appear to others? - significant others - “what would my family/friends say?” - generalized other - “what would ‘people’ say?” - results in varying meanings & interpretations of self-others Labeling Theory - meaning - people act on the basis of meanings they have - interaction - meanings come from interaction - interpretation - meanings are changed by interpretation Becker - Relativism: Labeling Theory A. Deviance is created by society - deviance is not contained within individuals’ behaviours but in the response of others - social groups create the rules - labeled as ‘outsiders’ B. Deviance is relative not absolute - deviance is not an objective, inherent quality of the act a person commit, but the result of the application of rules and sanctions to an “offender” C. Being labeled as deviant has important consequences for the person’s future - Master status (Hughes) - it becomes the single most important defining characteristic of a person Costello - Against Relativism: A Harm-Based Conception of Deviance - Costello reacts against Becker’s relativist position by advancing an absolutist perspec- tive on defining deviance - Acts are considered deviant on the basis of the harm they cause to others A Harm-based Concept of Deviance - rely on a “harm” concept to define deviance - behaviour is morally wrong if it is harmful to the person, to others, or to society Labeling Theory (Lemert, 1951) - Primary deviance: occasional rulebreaking - Secondary deviance: deviant lifestyle & identity - primary deviance -> getting caught -> secondary deviance Monday, Jan 28, 2012 - deviant label is attached and the conventional world rejects them and the deviant soci- ety is the only place that accepts them (Becker, 1963) - master status and implications - outsider - changes in identity & lifestyle - once they get labelled and label themselves, that becomes their master status - it has an implicated for a persons everyday life - the way you are treated changes - identity gradually changes and as it changes behaviour does too Relevant Research - HIV Positive Mothers Research - many are coping with physical problems but their emotional concerns were for their children - coping with physical problems along with discrimination, stigma, isolation, child care - disclosure issues and labeling - not accessing health services to help them, they were so afraid of being outted that their children would suffer - primary concern about master status was not for their own concerns but for their con- cerns for their children - saw their HIV positive status as their master status, but mostly that they were MOTH- ERS with HIV positive status Movie Clip - Mental Health - clip about master status, private identity and public identity - clip is from Girl, Interrupted - Winona Ryder (Suzanna) is promiscuous because she has sex before marriage with her professor - many women in the institution that did not conform - movie argues that even sane people can be institutionalized because once they are in- side, it is assumed that something is wrong - bowling scene - acting like themselves, unconscious - basement of the hospital where they can be free - in the psychiatrists office - see how they react to their own and each other’s labels - in the public - they act crazy as they are expected to act - public/private selves are very clearly identified Monday, Jan 28, 2012 - public identification as deviant - others start to think of individual differently - public and private settings in mental health centre - spoiled identity outside - damaged identity - behave as they are expected to behave - the dynamics of exclusion - Lemert - they are ostracized from what could be their so- cial group - winona ryder ostracized from a girl in college - master status - auxiliary traits Labeling Theory Dramaturgical approach (Goffman (1959) - life as theatre - we are all assigned roles which we are expected to play - e.g. front stage is teacher - back stage is ourselves - difference between front-stage selves & back-stage selves - multiple responses to stigmatization or spoiled identity, through impression manage- ment - there are a number of ways people can respond to spoiled identity Tertiary Deviance (Kitsuse, 1980) - people who have been labelled make a lifestyle out of being deviant - can emerge from the transition from primary to secondary deviance - may resist the label ‘deviant’ - seek to redefine normal, to include that act or characteristic Relevant Research - HIV/AIDS Educational Campaigns - Government campaigns focus less on sexuality and
More Less

Related notes for SOC 2070

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.