Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
U of G (30,000)
SOC (3,000)
SOC 2070 (300)

SOC 2070 Lecture Notes - Differential Association, Social Learning Theory, Mechanical And Organic Solidarity

Course Code
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
January 21, 2012 SOC2070 L.Hunter
Explaining Deviance: Sociological Theories of Deviance
- theories of deviance: an introduction
o Durkheim crime and deviance is essential
- explaining deviance: the act
- positivist theories
- functionalist theories
- anomie theory
- strain theory
- differential opportunity theory
- learning theories
- differential association theory
- neutralization theory
- social learning theory
- social control theories
- social bonds theory
- general theory of crime
- functionalism: the normal and the pathological
- social structure and anomie
- strain theory
- differential association
- control theory
Adler discusses Perspectives:
- the biological and psychological perspective
- the structural perspective
- the interactionist perspective
- various theories that fit into these different perspectives
Theory and Practice
- “There is nothing more practical than a good theory”
- early 20th century biological theories of crime
- mid-20th century social theories of criminal and non-criminal deviance
Theories of Deviance
- the sociology of deviance utilizes
o general sociological theories
o specifically criminological theories
o interdisciplinary theories
Which theory is ‘best’?
- theories of deviance co-exist
- some theories are more useful than others
o depends upon the research question
o each theory has its strengths and weaknesses
Objective-Subjective Continuum

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

January 21, 2012 SOC2070 L.Hunter
- Those with more objective interests
o Study the deviant act person or trait
o Positivist theories
- Those with more subjective interests
o Study social construction and social typing
o Interpretive and critical theories
- functionalist
- learning
- social control
Functionalist Theories
- Durkheim’s theory of Anomie
- Merton’s Strain Theory
- Cloward and Ohlin’s differential opportunity theory
Durkheim’s Theory of Anomie
- Durkheim as a structural functionalist advanced they theory that society is a
moral phenomenon
- Manifest and latent functions
o Manifest function intended and recognized
o Latent function unintentional and unrecognized provide with
social networks and facilitate with relationships
- a certain level of deviance is functional:
o increases social solidarity
o helps determine moral boundaries
o tests society’s boundaries
o reduces societal tensions
- collective conscience of moral belief
- this public response to deviance serves to remind people what is acceptable
- normal rather than pathological
- beyond a certain level, deviance is dysfunctional
- structure of society causes deviance
- mechanical solidarity people bonded together by their similarities
- organic solidarity people bonded together by differences that created
- mechanical solidarity organic solidarity
- rapid change creates anomie (normlessness)
- social disintegration and anomie were more prevalent in modern society
- deviance enforces the collective conscience of a group

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

January 21, 2012 SOC2070 L.Hunter
Functionalist Theories: Merton’s Anomie and Strain Theories
- structure of society contributes to deviance
- institutionalized goals and legitimate means
- unequal access to those legitimate opportunities
Merton’s Anomie and Strain Theory
- anomie = goals emphasized more than means
o deinstitutionalization of the means
- strain = normative social order creases unequal access to legitimate means
- Merton extended Durkheim’s ideas into strain theory
- Culture dictates success goals for all but institutional access limited to certain
- Social structures exert a definite pressure upon some persons in the society
to engage in non conforming, rather than conforming conduct
- In contemporary North America, we have conflict between the culture and
the social and economic structure
- Our culture dictates success goals for citizens whereas institutional access is
limited to middle and upper strata
- 5 modes of adaptation to strain
- Merton drew up a typology of different responses to goal attainment and
legitimate vs. illegitimate means of attain those goals
- Conformity accepting cultural values of success and the legitimate means or
conventional means of obtaining them
- Innovation emphasis on success but choosing to achieve is an illegal,
illegitimate or deviant fashion
- Ritualism the abandonment or scaling down of cultural goals of success and
rapid social mobility but abiding by institutionalized norms
- Retreatism a rejection of both goals and institutionalized means a retreat
from the things society values
- Merton’s anomie theory has had a major influence on social policy
- Expand access to economic opportunities, thereby making the social
structure more compatible with the cultural values
Functionalist Theories: Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory
- legitimate opportunities + illegitimate opportunities = conformity vs.
- nature of opportunities determines type of gang:
o criminal gangs, retreatist gangs, conflict gangs
- they suggest that not all disadvantaged persons have the same opportunity
for participating in illegitimate activities
- three types of deviant opportunities
- criminal: arise from access to deviant
- conflict: attract persons with propensity for violence
- retreatist: persons who seek to withdraw from society
- such opportunities are affected by several factors:
o neighbourhoods
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version