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SOC 2070 (337)
Lecture 5


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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

WEEK 5 READINGS – SOC 2070 – ADLER 381-388, 419-432 – BERESKA 138-154 PART VI: THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF DEVIANCE - relationships among deviants can follow many models o vary along a dimension of sophistication, involving complexity, coordination and purpose - membership rituals may vary from none to highly specific acts - some groups its hard to get into, others its uncounted and/or monitored by no one - groups of deviants vary in their organization sophistication, with the more organized groups capable of more complex activities o these groups provide greater resources and service to their members - loners are the most solitary, interacting with people, but keeping their deviant attitudes, behaviours, or conditions secret o lack the company of other deviants who share the same interest o rise of internet communities – loners realizing they are not alone o chat rooms, discussion boards, etc. can be negative or positive o serve several unintended functions that have significant consequences for participants:  they transmit knowledge of a practical and ideological sort among people, enabling them to more effectively engage in and legitimate the behaviour  they tend to be leveling, bringing people together in a common discourse regardless of their age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, etc.  some people go as far as meeting their ‘real’ friends face to face - colleagues represent the next most organizationally sophisticated associational form o deviants organizing as colleagues include the homeless, recreational drug users, and con artists o they may interact and perform their deviance with non-deviants - peers engage in their deviance with others like themselves, but have no more than a minimal division of labor o neighbourhood gangs who congregate with their friends generally engage in all of the same types of activities - crew form where groups of anywhere from three to a dozen individuals band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant capers than less organized deviants can accomplish o fascinate observers because their more sophisticated division of labour usually requires specialized training and socialization, giving them a more professional edge - formal organizations which are much larger than crews and extend over time and space o may stand alone or be connected to similar organizations - white-collar crime is a more socially injurious amount of deviance that occurs at the top, in the suites o we often tend to associate white-collar crimes with strictly financial activities, but they extend to bodily injury and death as well WEEK 5 READINGS – SOC 2070 – ADLER 381-388, 419-432 – BERESKA 138-154 o 56,000 Americans die every year on the job or from occupational diseases such as black lung and asbestosis - occupational crime is pursued by individuals acting on their own behalf o employees at all levels of organizations steal from their companies, and we have also seen the rise of embezzlement - organization crime, committed with the support and encouragement of a legitimate formal organization, is intended to advance the goals of the firm or agency o environmental crimes top the list, doubling the next closest offenders o many instances of false advertising where products are misleadingly allege to do one thing and either fail to do or have the reverse effect CHAPTER 35: GENDER AND VICTIMIZATION RISK AMONG YOUNG WOMEN IN GANGS [PAGE 419-432] - gangs made a rebound in American society in the late 1980s, fueled by the drug economy and the increasing economic plight of urban areas - while women gain status, social life, and some protection from the hazards of street life in joining gangs, they exchange this for a new set of dangers - strong evidence that delinquent lifestyles are associated with increased risk of victimization - gangs are social groups that are organized around delinquency and participation in gangs has been shown to escalate youth’s involvement in crime - research on gang violence indicates that the primary targets of this violence are other gang members - recent research on girls in gangs has examined these young women’s participation in violence and other crimes as offenders - one thing they get out of the gang is a sense of protection, gang membership itself means exposure to victimization risk and even a willingness to be victimized - a number of girls suggested that being a gang member is a source of protection around the neighbourhood o people inside and outside of the gang know you and respect you – they won’t bother you - being in a gang with young men means at least the semblance of protection from, and retaliation against, predatory men in the social environment - members recognized that they may be targets of rival gang members and were expected to be down for their gang at those times even when it meant being physically hurt - initiation rites and internal rules were structured in ways that required individuals to submit to, and be exposed to, violence - intiation involve either taking a fixed number of ‘blows’ to the head and/or chest or being ‘beat in’ by members for a given duration - breaking the rules within the gang was grounds for physical punishment - being a gang member also involves a willingness to open oneself up to the possibility of victimization WEEK 5 READINGS – SOC 2070 – ADLER 381-388, 419-432 – BERESKA 138-154 - autonomous female gangs may be shaped by different gender relations, we well as differences in orientations toward status and criminal involvement - all the young women reported having established leaders in their gang, and the leadership was almost exclusively male - number of young women stated explicitly that only male gang members could be leaders - leadership qualities – being tough, able to fight, and willing to do dirt - status in the gang was related to traits such as the willingness to use serious violence and commit dangerous crimes and these traits were viewed primarily as qualities more likely located among male members - young men’s perceptions of girls as lesser members typically functioned to keep girls from being targets of serious violence at the hands of rival young men, who instead left routine confrontations with rival female gang members to the girls in their own gang - in comparison with young men, young women were less likely to resort to serious violence like using a weapon - young women could use gender as a means of avoiding participation in those aspects of gang life they found risky, threatening or morally troubling - young women able to get out of committing serious crime, more so than young women because she shouldn’t have to risk her whole life (girl speaking) - the two types of crime mentioned most frequently as ‘off-limits’ for girls were drug sales and drive-by shootings - although girls’ exclusion from some gang crime may be framed as protective, it also served to perpetuate the devaluation of females members as less significant to the gang – not as tough, true or ‘down’ for the gang as male members - devaluation of young women could lead to the mistreatment and victimization of girls by members of their own gang when they didn’t have specific male protection (boyfriend or brother for eg.) in t
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