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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

February 4, 2013 – SOC 2070 – Lecture the evening of Midterm 1 The Social Organization of Deviance - Best and Luckenbill examines relationships among those labeled as deviant. These take many forms: o Numbers of members, task specialization, stratification within group, type of authority structure - Organized groups – providing greater resources and services to members, pass on values, teach novices skills and techniques required and help one another out when they get into trouble - Talk about the “loner”, colleagues, peers, etc. - LONERS o The most solitary in interacting with others but keeping their attitudes, behaviours and conditions a secret o This category includes self-injurers, anorectics, bulimics o Websites – forms of community – connect anonymously – many of these websites have been shut down – some websites report they help but many actually reinforce these behaviours if they are supportive and accepting o Such websites provide several latent functions for participants:  They transmit technical and ideological know-how  They bring together persons into common discourse  They are global - COLLEAGUES o Face-to-face relationships with others like themselves but do not need their cooperation to engage in activities o This category includes the homeless, and con artists o Mututal association brings possibility of membership in a deviant subculture of counterculture o The individual gains social support - PEERS o Engage in behaviours with other likes themselves but have only minimal division of labour o This category includes neighbourhood gangs who congregate with their friends but have little division of labour, except possibly a leader - CREW o 3-12 persons who band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant acts with larger monetary payoffs such as theft, smuggling o crew deviance involves a complex division of labour involving specialized training and socialization - FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS o Larger than crews and extending over time and space o Such organizations may involve transnational links to other similar groups – drug cartels o They are ethnically homogeneous, employ violence, and are vertically and horizontally stratified, and have been known to infiltrate and corrupt law enforcement - WHITE COLLAR CRIME February 4, 2013 – SOC 2070 – Lecture the evening of Midterm 1 o Directly related to those persons and groups in a position to abuse financial, organizational or political power o White collar crime can be divisional……… - OCCUPATIONAL CRIME o Pursued by persons acting on their own behalf o This includes employees at all levels of organizations who may steal from their companies including embezzlement and computer crimes - ORGANIZATIONAL CRIME o Crime committed with the support of a legitimate formal organization and designed to advance the goals of the firm or the agency o Unsafe products represents another area of organizational crime MILLER – Gender and Victimization Risk Among Young Women in Gangs - researched who offers glimpse into contemporary and urban world of street gangs - they associate together and need each other to function (referring to gangs) - adding a lot of female members recently - she found that women gain a status and social life and even some protection from the hazards of street life they can also exchange that for a new set of dangers and violence – both from rival gang members and also from their own gang as well - dilemmas and risks of this young women discussed by Miller - an undeveloped area in the gang literature is the relationship between gang participation and victimization risk - delinquent lifestyles are associated with an increased risk of victimization - gangs are social groups organized around delinquency and participation in hangs has been shown to escalate youth’s involvement in crime and violence - research on gang violence indicates that the primary targets of this violence are other gang members - Genders, Gangs, and violence o Gangs as Protection and Risk  Some girls suggest that being a gang member is a source of protection in the nieghbourhood  Females offered a gendered sense of protection by belonging to a group that was mostly male: male gang members could retaliate against violent acts to girls in gang  “because you can be protected by guys, not as many people mess with you”  members should be tough, able to fight, engage in criminal activities, be loyal to the group and be willing to put oneself out there o Gender, status, crime and Victimization  Status hierarchies within Columbus gangs, like elsewhere, are male-dominated February 4, 2013 – SOC 2070 – Lecture the evening of Midterm 1  Young women have greater flexibility in their gang involvement: fewer expectations on them to fight, use weapons and commit crimes  Young women also had second route to status by their connection as sisters, girlfriends, family to hi
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