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February 25 FULL NOTES.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

SOC 2070 February 25, 2013 Stigma and Mental Health Guest Speakers: - Alan Strong, Team Lead for Skills for Safer Living and the Centre for Excellence in Peer Support, Self Help Alliance, Waterloo Wellington o „What to do About Stigma: Lived Experience and Mental Health Supports‟ - Jill Cruikshank, Program Manager for Community Outreach and Support Programs, Homewood Health Centre Community Division o „Mental Health Supports‟ Mental Disorders - Deviant in that it is unexpected - Mental Illnesses result from an interaction between social stresses and other predisposing factors that are psychological, chemical, physiological, or genetic - Mental Illness is a leading social and health problem in Canada - Alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with significant distress and impaired functioning - Canada o 20% of adults have had a mental disorder  direct experience o 80% of adults know someone with a mental disorder  indirect experience Rates of Mental Disorder - Equal overall rates for women/men - Different types of mental disorders o Women: depression, anxiety  common mental disorders; linked to life stressors o Men: antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse disorder, conduct disorder o Common mental disorders o Linked to life stressors - Affects all socioeconomic strata of society - Lower socioeconomic status o Social causation hypothesis – more life stresses and fewer resources contribute to mental disorders  Merton Retreatism o Social selection hypothesis – people with mental disorders fall into lower socio- economic strata due to their difficulties - Adolescents/young adults o Biology + identity formation + stress Costs of Mental Illness - Individuals & families o Education o Employment o Income o Family instability o Physical illness - Insufficiently treated mental illnesses also have costs on society SOC 2070 February 25, 2013 - Societal  Canadian economy o Absence from work o Family members‟ absence from work or withdrawal from work in order to provide full time care o Inability to be employed o Decreased productivity while on the job Lack of Treatment - Two-thirds of people with mental disorders remain untreated, due to: o Lack of services (e.g. long wait times) o Perceptions of treatment as inadequate o Discomfort with self-disclosure in treatment o Neglect within families or communities o Fear of stigmatization Stigmatization - Negative consequences of stigmatization o Awareness of the stigmatization of mental illness  self-stigma  Internalization of the label “mentally ill”  Less likely to seek or adhere to treatment Policies & Programs - Embedded within two paradigms - Disease paradigm o Address symptoms of mental illness  medicalization - Discrimination paradigm o Try to resist the stigmatization of mental illness Disease Paradigm and History of the Social Control of Mental Illness - Most of history, people lacked knowledge of mental illness - Treatment of mental illness has changed: o “Exorcisms”  healed by casting out demons or torture o Family care o “Madhouses”  not treatment; corral all of the mentally ill in one place o “Asylums”  mental hospitals; lobotomies/barbaric treatment o Psychiatric care Deinstitutionalization - Began in the 1960s in Western societies to correct injustices - Treatment within communities, not institutions - Has improved the lives of many people  some cannot turn to/rely on family - But many people have fallen through the cracks - Effective deinstitutionalization requires: o Supportive family network o An accepting community o Adequate community resources o A place to live SOC 2070 February 25, 2013 - For some people, it has led to: o Homelessness o 25-50% of the homeless have mental disorders - Crime o 1500 inmates require daily mental health care Discrimination Paradigm and Resisting Stigmatization - Reduce stigmatization & discrimination - Human rights legislation - Medical programs (e.g., “Open the Doors”) - Public education - Self help groups  help reduce stigmatization - Lobbying governments for improved funding and better services Documentary Excerpts: Not Just a Bad Day - This documentary challenges the stereotypes of mental health issues by following people living with complex illnesses. Mike is a charismatic young man whose love of partying eventually sets off a severe manic episode that has him committed to the local psychiatric ward. His experience with the hospital is just the wake-up call Mike needs as he begins taking his illness seriously and rebuilding his life. Adler and Adler: IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT - Deviant identity career: seven stages –– Adler and Adler 1. Getting Caught & Publicly Identified 2. Retrospective Interpretation –– Schur 3. Spoiled Identity –– Goffman 4. Exclusion –– Lemert 5. Inclusion –– Lemert 6. Treated Differently 7. Internalization of the Label –– Cooley - Master Status & Auxiliary Traits –– Hughes o Deviance is often such a master status that determines our primary identity Stigma Management - A. Deviant label marks people with a stigma, leading to devaluation and exclusion - B. Goffman (symbolic interactionist): Stigmatized persons fall into two categories o Discreditable: easily concealable deviant traits who may manage themselves to avoid the stigma (ex-convicts) o Discredited: Those who have revealed their deviance or who cannot hide it o Those with discr
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