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SOC 2070 Lecture Notes - Canadian Human Rights Act, Viral Load, Crack Cocaine

Course Code
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

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SOC 2070 March 25, 2013
Structure of the Deviant Act
- Consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish a desired end, require the
coordination of participants, and depend on individuals reacting flexibly to unexpected
events that may arise
- Deviant acts fall along a continuum of sophistication and organizational complexity
- A. Individual acts
o Some deviant acts may be accomplished by one individual without need for
interaction with others
For example drug addiction
- B. Cooperative acts
o Involves cooperation of at least two voluntary participants and usually involves
the transfer of illicit goods such as arms, drugs or provision of illegal services in
sexual or medical realm
- C. Conflict acts
o One or more persons force interaction on an unwilling party of one or more
persons or an act initially entered into cooperatively results in one party setting
the other up
o In both cases the core relationship is one of hostility with one person getting the
more favorable outcome
o These include kidnapping, blackmail, theft, fraud, arson, trespassing, assault
Deviant Careers
- A. Entering Deviance
o Attracts greatest amount of scholarly attention
Policy makers have great interest in finding out how and why people enter
It is fairly easy data for researchers to collect
o Sociologists have provided information to public that influences and deters
o This includes the concept of “at risk” populations and risk factors
- B. Training and socialization
o While most may be socialized to the norms and values of their activity through
contact with others, most receive little explicit training in how to do deviance
o Training occurs when deviants work together, side by side, as a team
- C. Change over time
o Longitudinal studies of deviant careers are valuable since they can identify
motivations, rewards, conflicts, and problems that individuals encounter over the
course of their deviant careers
o Such studies are very helpful to people who struggle to understand themselves,
friends and family members caught up in deviance as well as helpful to policy
- D. Exiting deviance
o High political-policy interest in this topic as search for ways to induce persons to
cease their behaviours

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SOC 2070 March 25, 2013
- E. Post deviant life
o Most difficult data to collect since such persons will be difficult to identify or
locate once they have left deviant worlds and seek to blend into straight society
- F. Deviant versus legitimate careers
o This approach views deviance as an occupation and compares it to legitimate jobs
o Work in deviant areas may hold similarities to the skills, professionalism,
connections and attitudes of conventional jobs
o Goods and services are bought, sold, and distributed; costs, profits and risks are
o Yet there are limitations to this analogy: contracts cannot be legally enforced
careers are much less stable and subject to change
- The complexity of sexuality in human societies
- Kinsey‟s view of sexuality draws on biology
- Maugham suggests that we all judge people‟s sexuality
Social Processes and Deviance
- Social processes determine deviance through:
o Description
o Evaluation
o Prescription
Sociological Study of Sexuality
- Dominated by the social constructionist perspective
- Interactionist theories
- Critical theories
- Interactionist Theories
o How people understand sexuality (their own and others‟)
- Critical Theories
o Influence of power on understandings of sexuality
o Dominance of Foucault:
Elite discourses
o e.g., sexual behaviour vs. sexual identity
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