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March 25 Part 2.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

SOC 2070 March 25, 2013 Title? Structure of the Deviant Act - Consist of purposeful behavior intended to accomplish a desired end, require the coordination of participants, and depend on individuals reacting flexibly to unexpected events that may arise - Deviant acts fall along a continuum of sophistication and organizational complexity - A. Individual acts o Some deviant acts may be accomplished by one individual without need for interaction with others  For example drug addiction - B. Cooperative acts o Involves cooperation of at least two voluntary participants and usually involves the transfer of illicit goods such as arms, drugs or provision of illegal services in sexual or medical realm - C. Conflict acts o One or more persons force interaction on an unwilling party of one or more persons or an act initially entered into cooperatively results in one party setting the other up o In both cases the core relationship is one of hostility with one person getting the more favorable outcome o These include kidnapping, blackmail, theft, fraud, arson, trespassing, assault Deviant Careers - A. Entering Deviance o Attracts greatest amount of scholarly attention  Policy makers have great interest in finding out how and why people enter deviance  It is fairly easy data for researchers to collect o Sociologists have provided information to public that influences and deters deviance o This includes the concept of “at risk” populations and risk factors - B. Training and socialization o While most may be socialized to the norms and values of their activity through contact with others, most receive little explicit training in how to do deviance o Training occurs when deviants work together, side by side, as a team - C. Change over time o Longitudinal studies of deviant careers are valuable since they can identify motivations, rewards, conflicts, and problems that individuals encounter over the course of their deviant careers o Such studies are very helpful to people who struggle to understand themselves, friends and family members caught up in deviance as well as helpful to policy makers - D. Exiting deviance o High political-policy interest in this topic as search for ways to induce persons to cease their behaviours SOC 2070 March 25, 2013 - E. Post deviant life o Most difficult data to collect since such persons will be difficult to identify or locate once they have left deviant worlds and seek to blend into straight society - F. Deviant versus legitimate careers o This approach views deviance as an occupation and compares it to legitimate jobs o Work in deviant areas may hold similarities to the skills, professionalism, connections and attitudes of conventional jobs o Goods and services are bought, sold, and distributed; costs, profits and risks are calculated o Yet there are limitations to this analogy: contracts cannot be legally enforced careers are much less stable and subject to change Sexuality - The complexity of sexuality in human societies - Kinsey‟s view of sexuality – draws on biology - Maugham suggests that we all judge people‟s sexuality Social Processes and Deviance - Social processes determine deviance through: o Description o Evaluation o Prescription Sociological Study of Sexuality - Dominated by the social constructionist perspective - Interactionist theories - Critical theories Theories - Interactionist Theories o How people understand sexuality (their own and others‟) - Critical Theories o Influence of power on understandings of sexuality o Dominance of Foucault:  Elite discourses o e.g., sexual behaviour vs. sexual identity SOC 2070 March 25, 2013 N. America: 17th-20th Century: Dominant Meanings of Sexuality 20th Century Personal 18th Century Fulfilment Intimacy within marriage 17th Century Reproduction within mariage Figure: Changes in Dominant Meaning of Sexuality Contemporary Canada - Greater sexual freedom than in the past - Criteria for determining “deviant” sexuality o Consent o Nature of the partner o Nature of the act - Consent o Key question: How can we define “consent?” Canada - Nature of Partner - 1996 Parliament voted to add sexual orientation to the Canadian Human Rights Act - 2000 Same sex couples began receiving same benefits as opposite-sex common-law couples - 2005 Same sex right to legally marry Prostitution - Sexual double standard, poverty, and an unequal labour market increase the frequency and likelihood of prostitution - Prostitutes of street brothels or similar facilities, courtesans and escort services - Traffic in Sex – International criminal rackets exploit poor girls in war zones for illegal sexual, domestic and industrial labour SOC 2070 March 25, 2013 - Radical Feminists – argue that prostitutes come from generally oppressive backgrounds and are further oppressed by the male participants in the prostitution trade - Should argue
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