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Lecture 15

SOC 2070 Lecture 15: soc2070-march21&23

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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Patrick Parnaby

Soc2070 March 21 st Deviance and social space: homeless o Why are the visible homeless deviant (in general) o Violate o Citizenship o Our capitalist system and, thus, our culture, values a certain kind of citizen  Industrious  Economically independent. We have very little time for economically dependent  Consumption oriented. We often find people who don’t buy stuff weird o Visible homeless symbolically violate these norms and values o “lazy ass”, “get a job!” etc. personal appearance o judge character of people based on how they look. Some argue making assumptions like this are in our nature. And homeless don’t have the resources, time to change your looks, clean, admirable, well groomed. Contemporary and well respected citizen = well groomed, clean o value being clean and well groomed o stigmatize the dirty and disheveled o informal social controls o avoidance. Example: tim hortons, people are always distant from them. They were brought up in this culture too, homeless are aware. o E.g. Aware of the fact that he smells but it’s not like he wants to be judged or smell Personal appearance  Judge character  Value being clean and well groomed  Stigmatize the dirty and disheveled o Informal social controls o Avoidance  Homeless are aware…  Unable to meet cultural expectations Use of space  Violate intended function o Sleep in doorways, out of wind. o Bathe in public foundation. o Urinate on street we find unacceptable but they have no choice  Violate public and private distinction Negative reactions range from:  Violence (high victimization rate). Homeless kids are among the most victimized more than anybody else. They are victimized by other homeless and public as well.  Harassment non-stop.  Social exclusion o Goffman’s “non-person’ treatment. People walk by without eye contact, seems to be engaging like the person don’t exist, no smile, no talking  Homeless especially deviant in “gentrified” urban spaces o Higher property values o Populated by upper-middle and upper class because they can afford places. Those with money buy neighbourhoods renovate etc. and since investment is coming into their location then their taxes go up and rich makes it impossible for those to live in their home o Queen west street Toronto is an example o Deviance often has a spatial dimension.  Norms, values and social space. Certain people because of who they are violate those norms and values.  Dominant groups can navigate.  Some marginalized populations violate spatial norms just by being present  Subject to informal and formal social control  Exclusionary spaces Cyber deviance/ hacking and cyberbullying  Hackers definition: Individuals with an interest in technology who use their knowledge to access computers and decides with or without authorization from the owner (holy and kilger 2012)  Hacking is deviant, but not always malicious. The ownership of data, privacy etc. so it is deviant. o Testing security of hardware and software. There are hackers who uses their skills to do good, dedicate testing various forms of technology and figure out the weak points and report that to the developers. o The challenge is valued. They are curious to find out and challenge their skills Malicious activity - Development and distribution of malware. They essentially create program that can create  Software that can destroy or corrupt files, steal sensitive date, deface websites, render systems inoperable etc. they do exist and mutually aware of one another and work in close proximity. Hackers: emergence Early 1980s computer technology, bulletin board systems (bbs), etc. - Dial up access and asynchronous BBS - Explore the capabilities and limits of computers Some started accessing and controlling government and private sector computers. They just wanted to take data and show that they have, showing you are vulnerable etc. - Most didn’t want to cause damage. It was the challenge and sense of power that mattered. - Other sought to exploit expeci Anxiety over youth and computer technology facilitated a “hacker” archetype: 1) Hackers known to be pathological addiction to computers, we constructed them to be lonely and socially inept. (e.g. lonely in their parent’s basement in the computer) 2) Yet, they had an unbounded, “magical” power over computers because this technology was new. Claims makers were all over this constructing it like a social problem Late 1980s US business demanded legal action. Computer security industry emerged with warnings - Hackers constructed as a “criminal” threat 1990s emergence of the internet, e-commerce, and vast global networks - Hacking community grew. Increasingly global according to circumstanced evidence - Criminal minority capitalized on proliferation of targets. Number of targets were increasing because everyone started to be connected Estimated cost of cybercrime to global economy in 2013: $300 billion to 1 trillion Hackers as “criminal mastermind” remains the popular conception Rely on self-report data (surveys, interviews etc) - Good date re: non malicious hackers - Limited date re: malicious/ criminal hackers Hackers are overwhelmingly male and usually young (teens and twenties) - Why is it mostly males? Pushed to this, Socialization of males re: technology. They have active social lives (online and offline) - Associate and exchange info with other hackers, go to places, rent places, hack together - Form local group then take it to national, international groups Hackers: profile and structure Highly skilled (elite hackers, skill set is very fine, capable of innovation and computer developing): capable of true innovation and development semi-skilled: don’t innovate, develop as much usually apply to existing technologies unskilled: very limited knowledge, a nuisance.  Primary reasons for hacking (holy and kilger 2012) o Entertainment: hacking is fun, love causing trouble  Understanding and discovering limits of technology is FUN  Enjoy disrupting people’s “emotional equilibrium” i.e. taunting people. They want to make you uncomfortable for a second and see what happens.  Enjoy outing companies with bad security. o Ego:  Like subcultural respect and recognition that hacking brings  But, ego must be balanced with secrecy which is why they use alias, fulfills your ego. They want to be attached to the work they do, get recognized but they can't so they end up doing it through alias o Become a member of particular group  Good hackers invited to join hacking groups  Access to knowledge, talents, status, they want to be part of it and use It for their own purposes. o Money  Sensitive data can be sold internationally that will cause big bucks (login and passwords, banking info, public and private sector intelligence etc.) o Cause  Hacking to express political, nationalistic, or religious beliefs (i.e. ‘hacktivism’) can be used to follow some type of social agenda  E.g. anonymous attacked MasterCard, visa, PayPal for not supporting payments to Wikileads. How many hackers are there? We really have no idea. - The challenge of anonymity. One minute you are called bunny the next it is called solo. Keeps changing their identity online. - Depends on definitional criteria. For example:  Intent (malicious and non-malicious)?  Level of commitment? Do you want to get everyone in the survey or just truly dedicated ones  Skill level? whether you want to keep it restricted to highly developed skills that cause trouble or a 10-year old who is trying to hack into something Hackers: the subculture Knowledge of subculture comes from: o Interviews with hackers (all kinds) o Observational research at conferences, meetings, events etc. hackers lurking around technology on display, researchers asking them questions about what they are up to and what they believe in etc. or attend their conferences and observe etc. o Analyses of online forums and publications. You can learn a lot of what they do on a daily basis or what they value by looking at their daily conversations o Hackers have “loosely-knit” subculture. No clear signs of who belongs to the subculture unlike the street gangs. o Membership isn’t formally regulated. No one is monitoring who can join or not, it is an online environment. No one can stop you from joining a conversation or talking. o They all rely on anonymity. Anonymity and technology facilitates transcience o Yet, research shows some dominant norms/ values Dominant norms and values of hacker subculture: - Technology  All consuming love of technology. Desire to explode it and apply it in new ways  Importance of being hands-on (learn by doing)  Belief that technology can solve our problems (technological u
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