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SOC*2070 Lecture Week 11.pdf

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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

Monday, Mar 25, 2013 HIV Prevention/HIV Stigma Guest Speaker B.J. Caldwell - AIDS Committee of Guelph HIV Transmission - very hard to transmit - even without condoms, it does not transmit all the time (not 100%) - only 5 common body fluids can transmit HIV - blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, breast milk - saliva cannot transmit HIV * HIV is a lot less infectious than people think HIV Transmission (sexual) - many factors affects the likelihood of transmission: - HIV+ persons viral load (high viral load = more likely, undetectable viral load = very unlikely) - whether each person has a current STI (inflammation makes it easier for HIV to come in) * up to 85% of women who have chlamydia donʼt have symptoms, 50% of men - regular screening for STIs is a form of HIV prevention - the integrity of the mucosal membrane (especially vaginal walls/cervix and rectal walls) - consistent and proper use of condoms/lube make transmission exceedingly rare, if not impossible - plain water-based lube makes the condom much less likely to break, coats the vagina/ penis in another layer and also prevent micro rips or tears * stick with plain old water-based lube - donʼt use trojan condoms, they still make spermicidal condoms (armor) which causes inflammation and can increase risk of transmitting STI and HIV * KY astroglide is recommended Biology - lining of anus and rectum is very thin - cervix mucosal membrane is only 1 cell thick - most HIV is transmitted through the cervix membrane - younger people have a developing membrane and are at an increased risk of developing HIV - the foreskin is especially vulnerable to STIs and HIV - can also get in through the urethra or other sores which are a portal right to the bloodstream - really hard to get HIV orally, mucosal membranes are very thick - even taking HIV positive semen into the mouth is considered low-risk because it is so hard to get to the blood stream, when it goes to the stomach where acid kills it Monday, Mar 25, 2013 Harm Reduction - getting regular STI screening (at a minimum, annually), even if youʼre in a monogamous relationship or not having sex - using condoms, limiting number of partners - using lube, and the right lube - understanding that serial monogamous relationships do not protect against HIV/STI risk - not contributing to HIV stigma HIV Stigma in Canada - 1/10 Canadians believe that HIV can be acquired by kissing, mosquitos, sneeze/ cough, fountains/toilets - Canadians increasingly likely to believe that HIV can be diagnosed by a physical exam - 88% rate their own personal risk as low - 1/3 Canadians report ever having been tested for HIV - 40% of believe that people with PHA (people with aids) should not be hairstylists, 2/3 believe that PHAs should not be allowed to be dentists - 1/4 would be uncomfortable with working in an office with a PHA or shopping at neighbourhood grocery store if the owner were HIV+ - 50% would feel uncomfortable sharing a drinking glass with a PHA - 27% would feel uncomfortable wearing a sweater once worn by a PHA - only 48% believe that PHAs have the right to be sexually active Summary - HIV Stigma and Attitudes - the majority have positive attitudes and comfort level with PHA - a minority continue to report negative attitudes - comfort level and attitudes toward HIV are higher among those with more HIV knowledge and familiar with HIV - most frequent source of discomfort was fear of transmission HIV/AIDS Stigma - still associated with behaviours that are already stigmatized or considered deviant (particularly IDU (injection drug users) and homosexuality) - PHAs are thought to be responsible for their infection - HIV/AIDS is a life-threatening disease - not exactly in Canada with all of our medicine, affects your quality of life but people who get it in their 20s have a life expectancy of mid 70s - people are afraid of contracting HIV - the religious or moral beliefs of others lead them to conclude that having HIV/AIDS is the result of moral fault, such as the promiscuous or deviant sex, that deserves punishment - stigma is the #1 issue of people living with HIV/AIDS - upon an HIV+ diagnosis, anxieties and concerns arise from fear and uncertainty of how people will react, an overwhelming fear of transmitting the virus to others - itʼs against the law to not disclose that you have HIV to your partner if you put them at risk, itʼs not illegal to transmit HIV Monday, Mar 25, 2013 - it is incredibly difficult to disclose HIV status - these fears prevent people from disclosing to family/friends and benefiting from support, from seeking employment, accessing healthcare benefits and services, or other services Naloxone Saves Lives - prevents opioid overdoses - should be in the hands of every user of opioids - slowly rolling out in our area - our outreach staff will have their own naloxone but cannot hand them out - if someone is in the state of overdose, it is an injectable d
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