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Lecture 6

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SOC 2070
Norman Dubeski

Social Deviance Week 6: Violent Crime Crime and Deviance Overlap Violence --if a crime has no stigma attached, then criminal is --is force & coercion without consent not regarded as a deviant --we are inherently ambivalent about it, it is for both --the label ex-con is a stigma, many victims of heroes and villains violent crime also feel trauma and shame and don’t want other people to know --movies glamourize it, jargon normalizes it (collateral damage), and some wear military --much stigma for violent and primal crimes, but not camouflage for property and statutory crimes (i.e. gambling & trading) --violence is usually towards others, but there is also self-harm: suicide, slashing --some kinds of criminals are seen as more deviant than others --men often describe it as gaining control, women as losing it Robbery (1) Robbery (2) -theft with victim present and threat of harm -“street culture” upholds violent crime: robbery is --very useful index crime seen as more macho than theft -some robbers not deviant, like Robin Hood -more likely in urban areas because of anonymity --a lot of robbery is for drug money & fast living, though they say they “need money” -less likely to be harmed if robber had gun but most likely to be killed! (Least likely to be harmed or --Robbery can also be intrinsically pleasurable. killed if victim had gun) --most likely to be harmed if victim is defenseless --robbers often prepare themselves: getting high, but resists drinking, or listening to loud music ; to turn off fear and remorse -robbery victims less likely to know assailants then murder or assault victims --robbery can lead to rape or felony murder -if robbers & victims more likely Black, it is in part --home invasion latest robbery trend because Blacks are on average younger and more urban and (possibly) live in areas with more gun control “Opportunities & Decisions” I Opportunities & Decisions: II -burglary is a predatory crime of opportunity, --somebody suggests burglary or to “go out and spontaneous but a product of a series of decisions look for money.”—a keynote -young men hanging out, then those with jobs go -a burglary starts with opportunity, though not all home members of group have openly agreed to participate -remainder drink, smoke drugs, boast, show off --they love the feeling that anything might happen— criminal paraphernalia, those uncomfortable go of feeling predatorial and impulsive home --authors call process as “incremental signaling” -remainder agree they need money in a hurry --telling each other in stages what kind of guys they are and their intentions Murder as a Social Construct Positivist Generalizations I --usually does not include all killing: --a positivist looks at correlations and rates executions, suicide, self-defense, abortion, euthanasia, war, accidents, police shootings --Goode lists generalizations --only for a small minority (i.e. Buddhists, and --murder rate has gone down (peaked in mid 70s, Quakers) does it include all killing dropped since the 90s) --Sixth commandment is a condemnation of murder, --media’s view of murder is sensationalist not killing --most are not premeditated but impulsive and --in Canada, there is NO right of self-defense: one is confrontational to use “reasonable force” or to flee (if you shoot an attacker dead, it’s manslaughter) --most are justified by perpetrator --unlike in some states, where lethal force can be --intimates kill each other more than strangers used as a first resort against intruders & assailants (often called “the Castle” doctrine) ---murders and victims are homosocial (are similar) More Generalizations Other Nifty Generalizations --murder tends to be intraracial, not interracial (it --chance of surviving a murder attempt has gone up depends on group proportions and is decreasing) (calling 911, getting medical help) --African-Americans or Blacks are more likely to be --elderly have low rates of victimization but feel both victims and perpetrators by a factor of four vulnerable for they are more likely to be victimized by strangers and the young --murderers are disprortionately of lower SES --step-children more vulnerable --men commit 90% of murders --women become more vulnerable during pregnancy --men kill men, women kill men from partners and ex-partners --homicide rates vary by country, USA is 3 times --both murderers and victims often intoxicated higher than Canada, (explains escalation) --rates of violent crime have dropped historically --in United States, Washington D.C. was the since Middle Ages & Renaissance murder capital for 39 out of 40 years! Rape and Sexual Assault How Safe Do You Feel? --the traditional term is rape, today the legal term in --universities are covered with special lights and Canada is sexual assault which is a broader term there are walk programs to protect women Americans use --for stranger-rape, universities are among the safest --aggravated: violent or stranger-rape places --simple = less violent and acquaintance/date rape --women students walk around with headphones blaring under glare of lights set up to protect them --statutory rape: rape when consent was given but inapplicable (deception or age or mental infirmity) --the greatest at risk groups include the mentally and physically challenged, the insane, homeless, --Canada recognized marital rape in Canada in 1983 prostitutes—and no one puts up lights for them! Stigma of Abuse Interviewing Rapists --rape is often a war crime to humiliate entire tribe, --in prison interviews rapists will say whatever such as in European pogroms against Jews makes them look better or get better treatment: that rape is caused by society, or that they didn’t enjoy --Terrorist groups known to rape a woman to make it, blame substance use, or childhood problems her into a suicide bomber --Erich Goode & Diana Scully: the dominant belief --rape victims often afraid to come forward that rape is about power/violence and not about sex glosses over that for many rapists power/violence --people want to believe world is just, so ask, “What and sex may be indistinguishable or overlap did she do?” --when you let rapists speak freely, they use... --defense cross-examination often harsh on plaintiff --techniques of neutralization (it wasn’t bad for her) (there is no “Rape Shield Law”) Any crime in her --justification (women are teases or gave consent) past or unusual behavior is fair game --excuses (they were in a slump or drunk) --i.e. in cases of Kobe Bryant, William Kennedy Smith, IMF head --rapists thus have narrow & exclusive definition of rape that preserves their self-image --abused men also silenced Rape Constructed Cause Versus Blame Rape is always wrong, but socially constructed in --are different points out Richard Felson what it refers to. --we must always distinguish betwe
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