life expectancy

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Published on 28 Jan 2013
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Life Expectancy
• Demographers also study life expectancy, the estimated average lifetime of people born in a specific
year. Life expectancy can vary depending on:
1) Nation -- In 1998, the life expectancy at birth for a person born in the U.S. was 76.1 years, compared
to 80 years in Japan and less than 50 years in the African nations of Burundi, Chad, Rwanda, and
Uganda.
2) Sex -- Females born in the United States in 2000 have a life expectancy of about 80 years, whereas
men born in that year have a life expectancy of about 73 years.
3) Race -- African American men, for example, have a life expectancy at birth of about 65 years,
compared to 74 years for white males.
Migration
Migration refers to the movement of people from one geographic area to another
• Migration can be voluntary (usually due to economic “push” and “pull” factors) or involuntary (forced
migration due to war or other social conflict)
Immigration involves the movement into a geographic area, frequently to take up residency;
emigration refers to the movement of people out of a geographic area
• Today, about 900,000 people enter the U.S. each year
• More than 23 million people live outside their countries of origin
Population Composition
Population Composition refers to the biological and social characteristics of a population, including
such attributes as age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household.
• The sex ratio is the number of males compared to the number of females
• In the United States, there are approximately 96 males to 100 females, due to women’s high life
expectancy
• In India, there are approximately 107 males for every 100 females because women are more likely to
abort female fetuses and parents may provide less care for female children
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